WAR ON TERROR AND PAKISTAN
War on terror is a phrase used by Bush junior in his speech after 9/11. The main purpose behind this was to change the regime of states which have been sponsoring the terrorism in globe like Iran, Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. This idea flopped, it didn’t stop terrorist activities but expended terrorism all over the world. The middle east, as well as the South Asian region, was butchered by terrorists who were scattered all over on earth. Pakistan was not proactive state in the war on terror at that time and Pakistan had been providing logistic support to NATO, US respectively. War on terror was started to flourish democracy and to stop Taliban and dictators governments in different states. In 2004 Pakistan very first time entered as a member state in War on terror because Pakistan had no more option instead of entering in this hell. The USA’s this regime changing the phrase” war on terror” had been flopped in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan due to chaos in all these states. War on terror has different significant stages in Pakistan.
1st phase Musharraf era (2004-2008)
In the 1st phase, two major strategies had been adopted to address terrorism by Pakistan.1st is Deterrence the other is dialogue.
The era from 2004 to 2006 is called deterrence phase. This policy was used to deter terrorists but unfortunately, there are border management issues on the west side of Pakistan and poor FATA administration created a lot of troubles for the land of pure. In 2004, 2005 military operations have been occurred but failed due to lack of public, media and academic support so Pakistan has to withdraw from those two military operations. In the case of deterrence, the US provided Pakistan major non-NATO ally status and doors are opened for coalition funds for Pakistan.
There were different blow-backs of these operations so deterrence strategy shifted towards dialogue in 2006
In an era of 2006 to 2008, we have done 5 dialogues. There are 2 dialogues with Baitullah Mahsood, 2 dialogues with Sufi Mullah Fazlullah and one big dialogue with Mangal Bagh to establish peace in the region. This time period from 2006 to 2008 is a peaceful era, when Pakistan adopts dialogue strategy. US didn’t like dialogues so, they started to build pressures on Pakistan like civil nuclear deal with India in 2006, extended deal in 2008, IPI gas pipeline project India withdrew herself from this project due to Americans agenda and we got only 500 million dollar aid from 2006 to 2008. Finally, we have to shift from dialogues to deterrence again
2nd phase post-Musharraf era
From 2008 t0 2011, in this era the elected government was a victim of terrorism Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in Rawalpindi, this was the worst example where dialogues seem failed and deterrence was adopted again. From 2008 to 2011 there were eight military operations had been done and all were successful due to strong public opinion and results were positive like Kerry Logar bill, 3.5 billion military aid.
From 2011 to 2013In this period relations with the US were working but there were created mistrusts and misunderstandings between both states which were never addressed by both states until now. Big manifestations of this era were Remind Davis case, Abbottabad episode and Saliva check post attack, and all these issues had been created multifarious irritants between both states. Pakistan cut NATO supply, boycotted bone summit in 2011. In 2012 memo-gate scandal occurred as well as UNO passed a resolution that rights of Balochistan people had been breached. These factors added more fuel to fire and mistrusts in two states had been never-ending.
From 2013 to 2014,in this era again deterrence had been adopted by Pakistan. There are democratic transitions in Pakistan in 2013 .one of the major factor was that conservatives had been flourished in politics like PML n, PTI and all social and liberals were defeated like MQM and Pakistan people party. In this phase people interested in dialogues, so all party conference had been called. The public supported dialogues again and the US started to show a cold shoulder to Pakistan. They favored India as a permanent member of SC. On UNO forum Manmohan Singh stated that” Epicenter of terrorism is an immediate neighbor of India”. In this time period HakimUllah Mahsood died and again anarchy had been there like Karachi airport was attacked by terrorists, so Pakistan had to shift again toward deterrence.
From 2014 to till date this time again deterrence was adopted operations like Zarb-e- azab, Khyber operations 1,2,3 and 4 and most recently held operation radd -ul- fasad held from 2014 t0 2019. At this time state again focused to construct national narratives after APS and wahga attack.
Efforts to construct national narratives.
Initiative to form PPO Pakistan protection ordinance later on it became an act in 2014. First time in this era state empowered security agencies.
National internal policies had been made like a comprehensive plan and composite plan
NAP national action plan had been chalked
Military courts to execute terrorists immediately.
Implications of war on terror on Pakistan
Economic implications are like economic loss 120 billion loss state had to face up-till now. FDI foreign direct investment was 18 billion in an era of Musharraf and after that up, till now we got only 10 billion FDI in dollars after excluding China investments. Due to deterrence low, FDI had been achieved. Great nations have to sacrifice for great things. Likewise the GDP ratio in the Musharraf era it was 6.7percent but after that, it was 4 to 5 %. So, only deterrence should be adopted to cut down the roots of militants as Sari Lanka did in case of Tamil tiger and they had enjoyed peace for a long time.
Human implications of war on terror can never be ignored. International displacement center report says” more than 100,000casualties had been occurred .other report says” more than 5 billion people had been displaced in the war on terror. All TDP’s camps had been changed to terrorist breeding grounds due to war on terror.