A fire extinguisher is an active fire-fighting device used to extinguish small fires or fight them, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use in an uncontrolled fire, such as a fire that has reached the ceiling, endangering the user (i.e. lack of an escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.) or otherwise requiring examination by a fire brigade. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent that can be released to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers made with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less common.

TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Maryam Sana
Maryam Sana

Types Of Fire Extinguishers

Keywords: Fire Extinguisher, Types Of Fire Extinguisher, Cylindrical Pressure, Flammable, Combustible, Reignition, Oxidizing Chemical, Electrical Equipment, Safety Nozzle, Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher, Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher, Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher, Foam Spray Fire Extinguisher, Water Fire Extinguisher

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Fire Extinguishers

A fire extinguisher is an active fire-fighting device used to extinguish small fires or fight them, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use in an uncontrolled fire, such as a fire that has reached the ceiling, endangering the user (i.e. lack of an escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.) or otherwise requiring examination by a fire brigade. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent that can be released to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers made with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less common.

Types of fire Extinguishers

Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher

Wet chemical is a new agent that extinguishers fire and play a key role in removing fire. It prevents from re-ignition by creating an obstacle between oxygen and fuel elements. These extinguishers are red with yellow label and cam be suitable for class “A” and class “F” fires. Class “A” = paper, wood, textile. Class “F” = cooking oils, fats, olive oil, sun flower oil, maize oil and butter. The chemical element present in wet chemical fire extinguisher is potassium. Wet chemical is released as fine spray which dampens flame by making chemical changes to burning oils and making them non-combustible. Wet chemical fire extinguisher are ideal for kitchens and restaurants specifically for being for use on fats and oils. Potassium acetate often added with potassium citrate or potassium bicarbonate.

Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher

Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher

Dry powder fire extinguishers are ideal for open or outdoor environments with the risk of several different types of fire especially those involving chemicals, fuels or vehicles. Example include garage forecourts, large commercial boiler rooms, flammable liquid storage facilities, large workshops and fuel tankers and other vehicles. Aim at the base of the fire and move that jet rapidly backwards and forwards. For electrical fires: switch off the power if its state to do so, then direct the jet of powder straight at the fire. Remember don’t use any dry powder extinguishers in closed areas. Don’t use dry powder fire extinguishers for fire involving cooking oil, such as chip pan fires (class “F” fires), fires involving electrical equipment over 1000v and fires involving flammable metals unless it is a specialist dry powder extinguisher. It is a multi-purpose fire extinguisher and can be used on classes A, B and C fires. They can also be used on electrical fires but leave a residue that maybe harmful to sensitive electronics. Dry powder fire extinguishers work by chemical reaction with the fire causing the particles to expand, chemically inhibiting combustion and expelling the oxygen thereby smothering the flames. It is a blue colored label stating powder and should be identified by an extinguisher ID sign fixed nearby-powder extinguisher.

Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher

Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers

Carbon dioxide is a non-flammable, non-conductive, non-corrosive and colorless gas and present in atmosphere in low quantity. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, extinguishes the fire by taking away the oxygen from the burning fire. Carbon dioxide is stored in the cylinder at high pressure unit and is converted into liquid form. Carbon dioxide is very cold as it comes out of extinguishers so it cools the fuel as well. It also disables the fire ability to spread by neutralizing the oxygen. The ice cold temperature of carbon dioxide when released from extinguisher block the fire.

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are usually found in laboratories, mechanical rooms, kitchens, flammable liquid storage area. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are designed for class “B” and “C” fires. It is used on electrical equipment regardless of high or low voltage. It is highly effective against flammables such as solvents, petrol, oil, acetone, ketones and etc. It is not suitable for flammable solids such as wood, paper and fabric. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers should never operate in enclosed area without the use of breathing apparatus.

Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers

Foam Spray Fire Extinguisher

Spray foam fire extinguishers are ideal for use against class A and B fires. Highly effective against petrol and volatile liquids, forming a flame smoothing seal over the surface and hence also preventing reignition, ideal for multi risk usage in areas such as workshops and garage. These extinguishers are usually found in aircrafts, oil refineries, garages, forcourts, workshops, small industrial locations, motorsport etc. They are composed of concentrated foam solution, water and inert nitrogen which pressurizes the extinguishers. They are suitable for class A and B fires which includes flammable solids and liquids, wood, petrol, polish, paper, leaves, carpet, fabrics and some plastic. When fire extinguisher is used the stored pressure drives out the foam solution which swirls around in the nozzle, producing a fine spray of foam. In much larger volume than the extinguisher itself.

Foam extinguishes class A fires by cooling the burning material and removing the heat from the combustion triangle.it extinguishes class B fires by covering the flammable liquid with a foam blanket, thus cutting off the oxygen supply from the combustion process. The water content of the foam will help lower the temperature of flammable liquids. They are smaller in size and cover multiple classes of fire and give a rapid knockdown of the fire. They do not impair visibility of the operation when used. They are non-toxic and non-damaging to most of the materials. These extinguishers are liable to freezing even with a low freeze additive. Their cost is very high and most of them can’t be used for class C, D, E, F fires.    

Foam Spray Fire Extinguisher

Water Fire Extinguishers

Water Fire Extinguishers are useful and cost effective and have a class A rating and are suitable for fighting fires involving solid combustibles such as wood paper and textiles. They penetrate burning materials creating a cooling effect and prevent reignition. Electrical equipment should be avoided when using water extinguishers as water is a conductor.

Water mist fire extinguishers are highly effective on class A, B, C, F and electrical fires. The unique design of water mist extinguishers supersonic nozzles creates a microscopic mist curtain, reducing the oxygen content. They are also safe on fires caused by electricity, as the water mist does not conduct and the water mist does not form puddles which could lead to electrocution.

Using the extinguisher first remove safety pins to break the anti-temper seal and stand well back from the fire. Point the nozzle at the base of the flames and squeezes the handle. Keep spraying until you are sure that all of the fire is out. Stored-pressure water fire extinguishers give you the ability to respond quickly in the first critical minutes of fire. Standard water extinguishers contain 2 ½ gallons of water. Under normal conditions, stream reach is 15-30 ft, discharge time is 30-60s. these extinguishers must be protective against freezing if they will be exposed to temperature less than 40-degree F (4-degree C).

These extinguishers have clean durable bult welded stainless steel shell construction leads to long service life while brass and aluminum alloy components help eliminate corrosion. These extinguishers have simple squeezer grip operation and easy recharge and maintenance in the field using standard air valve for pressurization. The extinguisher operating temperature range is 40-degree F to 120-degree F. These extinguishers are found in office environments and some industrial locations as well as ware house and oxidizing chemical storage areas.

Water Fire Extinguishers
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