Agriculture is the very important sector of Pakistan economy contribute 19.82% to GDP contribute. It employs 42.3% of total labour force in Pakistan. In Pakistan, kharif and rabi are two main crop seasons. Kharif crops are Cotton, Rice, jowar, sugarcane, bajra and maize.  While rabi crops are wheat, tobacco, gram, mustard, rapeseed and barley. Cotton is a major cash crop in Pakistan and a major source for the textile to provide raw material. Cotton has 1.0% share in GDP and its contribution in value addition of agriculture is 5.1%. Cotton is a major source of earning due to foreign exchange and the main source of nonfood Kharif crop. During 2015-16 cotton production was 10.074 million bales and last year production was 13.960 million bales that showed a decline of 27.8%due lack of inputs and climate change.

Cotton is cultivated in more than 70 countries of the world however only four countries are Dominate India, USA, Pakistan and China which are producing two-thirds of the total world’s cotton. In the world, Pakistan is the 4th biggest country for cotton production after India, USA and China.  Pakistan’s total world share in cotton production remained 9%. USA exports 41% of total cotton and USA is the major cotton exporter of the world. China imports 19% of cotton, it’s the main importer of world’s cotton Pakistan is the third biggest consumer with 10% of total world production, third biggest fiber manufacturer with 9%, second biggest exporter of fiber with 26%, third biggest producer of cloth with 7% and third biggest exporter of cloth with 14% of world cotton manufacturer.

During 1950-2007 cotton cultivation was 7 to 27 million tones increased. In 2009-2010 twenty two million tones declined. By adopting latest technology and increasing the cotton cultivation area has resulted in a major increase in worldwide cotton production. The top four countries that produced cotton in the world are; Pakistan, USA, India and China which contribute about 70% of globally cotton production. Since 2003-2004 due to increasing demand for textile manufacturing, cotton expenditure has continued increases. The USA is the largest cotton exporter followed by India. Cotton is producing mostly in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Punjab is producing 80% of the total cotton crop and Sindh producing 20%. Cotton contributed to GDP 8%, employment 17% and earnings of foreign exchange are 54% of Pakistan. The cotton production procedure involves validation use of inputs that included seed, irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers. During the last decade, a major increase in cotton farming but the still prospective yield has not been demoralized. However, by using advanced technologies and sensible use of inputs can increase the cotton production.

There are various factors either inputs and climate effects cotton production. There are different opinion persist between experts about the factors that responsible for improving cotton productivity and the degree of contributions of these factors to increase cotton productivity The association between inputs usage and productivity in general. The labour, farm size, irrigation, seed, working capital, fertilizer and number of cultivation were the main variables in the cotton production process.  Poor land quality, Irrigation water, fertilizer and weediness cost are main constraints that influence badly crop production. The good organization of such variables would increase cotton productivity.

There are many reasons for fluctuation in cotton production. There are many kinds of pest/insect which affect cotton production. Moreover, with rising uses of pesticides, pest/insect compound is radically changed. In 1980, various minor pests changed into main pests and appeared new pests on cotton. In Pakistan, Tea mites, American Bollworm and Aphids were not unique pests of cotton but they became as a consequence of indiscriminate and large-scale uses of pesticides. The pest/insect of the cotton flare-up in the season and did the significant loss of cotton due to arbitrary uses of pesticides.

Overall, cotton cultivation usually high uses of irrigation, mechanization and agrochemicals which lead to a high prospective for ecological impacts. The un-necessary uses of fertilizers contribute to water pollution and greenhouse gas emission.

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