REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN SAADAT HASAN MANTO’S SHORT STORIES LICENCE, MOZAIL AND TEN RUPEES.
The study aims to investigate that how Saadat Hasan Manto advocates women freedom and represent different shades of women in oppressed society in his short stories Ten Rupees, Mozail and Licence. It spotlights how ladies lived in patriarchal society. He plays the role of spokesman in depiction of his leading female characters. He criticizes the double standards of society where ladies are submissive and patriarchal society. He also criticizes the traditional gender roles and advocates the liberation of women. He portrays different shades of women in oppressed society and he describes how male dominated society exploits their lives and shades how innocent child involved in the business of prostitution. The paper points at setting up that Manto for his per users strengthens the thought that ladies as prostitutes are a workmanship of a manufactured social arrange made by and for men where ladies are executed, traded, exchanged and supplied in the shape of product.
CHAPTER NO: 01 INTRODUCTION
The research explores the depiction of social freedom, desires and represents different shades of women life in traditional society through his characters. Saadat Hasan Manto is one of the most contentious and acknowledge writer the subcontinent. He portrayed women of different social and religious background as his protagonist character. Manto builds female characters that have a place to the assortment of diverse social areas. They would move young girls, prostitute, displaced women, homemakers and rebels. He brought how females are abused and utilized by men for their personal satisfaction.
1.1 Life and work of Saadat Hassan Manto:
The heart of Urdu literature and the best short story writer Saadat Hasan Manto was born in 11th May, 1912, in the small town Papraudi near Samrala, in the Ludhiana district of Punjab in a Kashmiri Muslim family. His father, Maulvi Ghulam Hasan was a lawyer and Manto was his only son from his second wife. He was journalist, short story writer, and film and radio scrip writer. He in print twenty two collections of short stories, one novel and five collections of radio plays, three collections of essays and two collections of personal sketches. He got his primary education from Ludhiana but he was not good at studies. He failed twice in Matriculation Examination. He started his literary career translating work of the great literary figures, like Victor Hugo, Oscar Wilde, Chekov and Gorky.
In 1931, he passed his school and attended Hindu Sabah College in Amritsar and at that time he wrote his first short story Tamasha. In 1932 after the death of his father, he started to support his mother. In 1933, at the age of twenty one he met Abdul Bari Alig an editor of the Amritsar newspaper Equality. Alig inspired and motivated him to find his skills and abilities and read Russian and French writers.
He started his professional literary career as a translator in an Urdu newspaper. He translated Victor Hugo’s novella The Last Day of a Condemned with title “Ek Aseer ki Sargasht” and was published in 1933. Soon after he translated Oscar Wilde’s Vera, a collection of Russian stories and two plays of Chekhov into Urdu language. In July 1934 Manto entered Aligarh Muslim University where he associated with India Progressive Writers Association (APWA) and then he wrote his second story “Inqlaab pasand” which was published in Aligarh magazine in March 1935 but due Tuberculosis he left the university. He spent some time in the small northern town of Batot. He returned to Amritsar in the end of 1935 and accepted the offer of Nazir Ludhianvi to go to Bombay to edit his weekly film newspaper The Painter. In 1937 he wrote script and dialogue of Village Girl film.
In 1939 he married to Safiya and faced many financial crises. In 1940 Nazir Ludhianvi suddenly fired him from the newspaper and then he started working in Babu Rao Patel’s film magazine Caravan as an editor. At that time period he wrote stories and radio plays. After that he worked as scriptwriter. In June, 1940 his mother died and it was tragic loss of his life. In April 1941 he lost his son Arif it was another tragic loss of manto life. In 1941 he left Bombay for Delhi. It was his most prestigious time. He started working in All India Radio in Delhi. In that time he produced radio plays and wrote several short stories. He in print his collection of short stories by the title of Smoke. He left his job due to quarrel of director of All India Radio in July 1942. He once again started working with film industry. In this segment of life he wrote many popular short stories like Black Trouser (Kali Shalwar), smell (bu). He migrated to Pakistan in January 8, 1948 after independence days. After spending few days in Karachi, he started living in Lahore with his family. It was his last and hardest phase of life. There was nothing for Manto in Pakistan. He had not job opportunities. He was drug addicted. He used to drink with his friends in Bombay and Delhi but he began to drink more heavily in Lahore. He used to drink to escape his economical troubles In Pakistan he wrote stories in the exchange of the price of alcohol bottle. In that time he wrote many short stories and sketches. He entered a mental institution in April 1952 in a bleated endeavor to remedy his liquor addiction, but this had no enduring results. He died on January 18, 1955 at the age of 42.
He wrote most famous and important short stories and many times charged for obscenity before and after partition. In Pakistan he faced obscenity charges for open it (Khol Do) and Cold Meat (Thanda Ghoast) stories. He delivered magnum opuses like “Toba Tek Singh”, “The Return”, “Mozail”, “Ram Khalawan”, “A Tale of 1919, and “Smell” etc. He is compared with D.H.Lawrence because of his controversial stories about social taboos. He was the most controversial writer because of the in hesitant portrayal of different shades of human desire in his short stories. He presents human psychology through his characters. He always wrote about common people. His subject matter was prostitutes, pimps, dancing girl and downtrodden people. He was realist he depicts the harsh realities of society and his stories told the brutality of partition. It took decades for Manto’s works to pick up the appreciation that it genuinely merits. His stories have been translated into many local and foreign languages. In January 18, 2005, the fiftieth annual commemoration of his passing, Manto was commemorated by Pakistani postage stamp. The postage stamp perused as “Saadat Hasan Manto (1912-1955) Men of letters.” At last, fifty seven years a long time after Manto’s passing, on 14th August 2012, the Government of Pakistan honored him with highest civilian award “Nishan e Imtiaz” for his literary achievement in Urdu literature. In 2015, Sarmad Sultan Khoosat coordinated the motion picture in Manto’s life after partition.
1.2 Saadat Hasan Manto as a short story writer:
Saadat Hasan Manto is broadly acclaimed as one of the first class short story writers of Urdu. He broke away the convention of story writing and laid the foundations of modern fiction in Urdu. His mastermind lay in writing about subjects which were hitherto taken consideration as social taboos in Indo-Pakistani society. His stories commonly revolve around characters formally thought as too unimportant for perfect literature, such as whores, pimps, purloiners, tonga- walas, and sewage-cleaners and typically about females below male patriarchy. He was famous because of the realistic portrayal of emotions and experiences. His stories are rest on universal appeal. It is for all the ages and all the times. His time period was politically, religiously and traditionally suffocated and in that time he depicted bitter realities of life’s complexities. He exposed the so called respectable society and depicts the internal truth and emotions of people through his characters.
He was considered as milestone of Urdu short story after, Premchand the father of short story. He introduces different and unique subject matter in his stories. He was boldly discussed the realities of the society and relationship of men and women. His most famous and well recognize stories are Smell (bu), Khol Do (Open it), Mozail, Cold Meat (Thanda Ghoast), Black Trouser (Kali Shalwar), and Toba Tek Singh. These stories show the creative power of Manto.
In Smell (Bu) story he shows the lust and desire of men. This story revolves around guy’s yearning for the pride of his fleshy dreams. Man will become daze in his desires for woman; he forgets social fame and respect for the searching for the organization of the cozy arms of the female and indeed can bed the filthiest and the ugliest female in case an opportunity comes.
Open it (Khol Do) describes look for a girl by father, Sirajuddin inquires everybody for offer assistance in following his girl Sakina but he is not mindful that in each heart there sits a demon. The youthful individual whom he inquired for offer assistance in spite of the fact that are able to fallow Sirajuddin’s girl but to the articulate daunt of human kind Sakina was disregarded by own men, individuals having a place with her own religion.
Mozail portrays a strong character of Jewish girl who gave her life to save others life. It depicts how women esteemed in society on the basis of their appearances. A Sardarji falls in cherish with her but she denies him. Afterward when the Sardarji’s fiancé is in fear of assault by devout agitators, Mozail gets to be the guardian angel and gives the fiancé her robe, so as to offer assistance her elude. Mozail at that time was totally exposed, goes up against the Muslim agitators, who appear to be occupied by her. One of the agitators offers her his sheet to which she answers “Takeaway this rag of your religion. I do not need it”.
Cold Meat (Thand Ghoast) set in the time where there is continuous battle among the Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, a man assaulted a woman out of scorn for opposite community. He afterwards finds out that he assaults a cadaver. After coming to home to his spouse, he is not sexually stimulated by her when she tries to tempt him. He keeps considering around the woman he assaulted. The wife is ranked and slaughters her spouse.
Black trouser (Kali Shalwar), this story is about the major character Sultana who is the symbol of chronic sexual enslavement of women. The main character in Black Trousers speaks to the incessant servitude of females, which still exist in our society is a set up calling as well. Sultana is a faceless lady who describes the story of ill- fated ladies who unyielding turn to the illegal institution of prostitution to make closes meet. Sultana herself is the “Kaali Shalwar” an absorbent regarding society’s evil and sickness.
Toba Tek Singh is one of the most famous, best and most read story of partition. It depicts the harsh reality of partition and victims of partition. It is powerful parody and moreover sharp prosecution of the political forms and behavior designs that delivered separation.
Manto was the rebel against the social and religious corruption. His first and foremost subject was humanity. He struggled against the division of humanity on the basis of religion. His versatility from other writers of his age is that he wrote about each and every subject of life with true and realistic essence and he hated hypocrisy. His stories reflect his age and time and also have universality in his stories. He used most appealing style in his stories.
Urdu literature has barely delivered any fiction author of Manto’s stature who peeled off the layer of untruthfulness, lie, partiality, religious superstition and false reverence and uncovered the ethical rot of his society. Manto valiantly touched upon certain subjects which were until at that point considered social unthinkable over the subcontinent. The traditionalist area of society could not get a handle on the inward meaning and thought provoking thoughts of his short stories and in this way he was blamed of obscenity. Most of his short stories reflect the savageness and brutality of human creature. He exposed harsh reality life as he seem. At numerous events they express the reality that no monster on this soil is as savage as man. Prostitutes who have over a long time been disregarded by society an extraordinary put in Manto’s short stories. Not at all like other fiction journalists, has Manto offered the distresses of his rejected lesson of human beings. He digs profound into the internal self of whores finds the woman in the haziness of her injured soul. Even he locates goodness in prostitutes. With his familiar introduction he universalized this subject. Manto generally composed approximately the ignored parts of our society particularly ladies. Ladies of distinctive ages, callings religions, and social foundations utilized to be the heroes of most of his stories. He fair portrayed what he saw happening in the society; he composed the sheer truth. He saw ladies being abused, overwhelmed, attacked, killed and assaulted. Today, after a slip of few decades, his stories are as new and significant as were in the past. The characters that show up in Manto’s short stories appear to be the portion of present day society.
1.3 Study Context:
In dissertation, the main focuses on the characters of Manto’s short stories which show different aspects of women life. Manto’s short stories talks about the traditional parts of women and men life. It depicts that how manto is the advocate of women social freedom and desires in oppressed and male chauvinists society .Nesti from “licence”, Mozail from “Mozail” and sarita from “Ten Rupees” story represents the different shades and vivid realities of women life. Manto talked about women liberation. Through the stories he portrayed harsh and bitter realities of women life. Through the representation of his female characters he shows the double standard of male dominated society where women are not free to earn money in respectful manner weather society forced her to run a brothel. Manto believed that male dominated society creates prostitute and it is responsible for women exploitation. People think prostitutes are insensitive and sell their body because this is their profession but Manto represent other aspects how woman become prostitute. In Ten rupees story he represent a child prostitute and her desire and wishes of freedom. He becomes the voice of voiceless and downtrodden females. He present different look of prostitute by breaking stereotypical narrative. He honestly represents different weak, victimized, pitiable and oppressed women in his short stories.
1.4 Research Questions:
The research will discuss the following questions:
- How Manto is the advocate of women freedom?
- How Manto represents different shades of women in oppressed society?
1.5 Study Rationale:
The research explores feminist approach in the short stories of Manto and exploring different shades of women in oppressed society. It aims to analyzing status of women through characters of the stories.
1.6 Limitation of the study:
This is the study based on the short stories of Saadat Hassan Manto which are translated by different writers. My research is limited on the literature produced by Manto and the critical work of different scholars on Manto. It is based on analyzing of text of short stories to find out representation of women in his stories Mozell, Ten Rupees and Licence. It explores how Manto favors women freedom and how he represents different shades of women life in male chauvinist society.
Chapter 1 of the dissertation outline the idea of Representation of women by Saadat Hasan Manto in his short stories Licence, Mozail and Ten Rupees and discussed context, study rationale, limitation and aim of study including research questions.
CHAPTER NO: 02 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter reviews feminist approach in Saadat Hasan Manto’s short stories. It explores different shades of women in oppressed society. Representation of women has been always a big question in male dominant society. It also explores the representation of women through different characters of Manto’s stories.
Feminism is a movement for equal rights of men and women and it is against gender discrimination. Charles Fourier originated the term feminism from Latin word “femee” that means woman. According to traditional gender roles women are inferior to man. They are weak and submissive than men. Feminist believes that men and women have same rights and opportunities. They focus on the equality of men and women.
The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Politics defines feminism as, “Feminism is a way of looking at the world, which women occupy from the perspective of women. It has as it central focus the concept of patriarchy, which can be described as a system of male authority, which oppresses women through its social, political and economical institutions.”
In Feminism Is for Everybody Passionate Politics, bell hooks (2006) define feminism as, “Feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression.” (P vii) British Philosopher Janet Richards defined as “The essence of feminism has a strong fundamental case intended to mean only that there are excellent reason for thinking that women suffer from systematic social injustice because of their sex, the proposition is too regarded as constituting feminism”.
B.David defines feminism as, “Feminism includes any form of opposition to any form of social, personal or economical discrimination which women suffer because of their sex” (David, 6)
In simple words Feminism is a movement against patriarchal and male dominated society. It is struggle to be free from male chauvinist and achieve equal rights.
First women rights convention was held at Seneca Falls in 1848 it was the beginning of feminist movement and it was further progressed because of the publication of John Stuart Mill work The Subjection of Women in 1869. Mill described in his work that: “legal subordination of one sex by the other was wrong and if anywhere this practice was going on, it was the biggest hindrance to the progress of mankind”(Mill, 1869). In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women for the cause of feminism. According to Freedman “feminists calls for changes in the social, political or cultural order that will move ahead to change the position of women from the society” (freedman 2002). Feminism movement has three waves of feminism which shows the struggle of women for their social, political and equal rights. They raise voice for the equality of women at different stages.
2.2.1 Three Waves of Feminism:
According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the movement is divided into three waves under the title of first wave of feminism, second wave of feminism and the third wave of feminism.
First wave of Feminism:
The first feminist wave was nineteenth and early twentieth century, it focuses that women are not property so not be treated them as property. Women are also human beings so they should be treated as human being. First time women were advocated for their rights. After that movement women get right to vote.
Second wave of Feminism:
The second wave was in the 1960s and 1970s; it promotes the idea of complete gender equality in social, political, economical and legal spheres. It focuses on women’s liberation. It was against discrimination between men and women. Simone de Beauvoir’s “The Second Sex” considered as her masterpiece of second wave of feminism in which she advocated women as full human being.
Third wave of Feminism:
The third wave of feminism extends to 1990s to the present; it focuses to solve the problems of women from all walks of life and from all societies. Third wave feminism looks for to challenge or maintain strategic distance from what it regards the second waves “essentialist” definitions of gentility, claiming that these definition over-emphasized the encounters of upper class course white women and generally overlooked the circumstances of lower class women, minorities and women living other societies.
2.2.2 Liberal Feminism:
Liberal feminism asserts women rights the correspondence of men and ladies through political and lawful change. It is an individualistic frame of women’s liberation and rights which centers on women’s capacity to appear and keep their uniformity through their possess activities and choices. Liberal feminism employs the individual intuitive between male and females as the putt from which to change society. Agreeing to liberal feminism, all females are able to stating their capacity to accomplish correspondence, hence it is conceivable for alter to happen without changing the structure of society. Liberal feminism supports freedom of women. Liberal feminism is essentially women and men treated as rises to. A few of the primary issues of magnanimous women’s liberation incorporate regenerative and premature birth rights, sexual badgering, voting rights, instruction reasonable childcare and reasonable wellbeing care. Women ought to have the same lawful rights, work openings and instruction as men. The primary goal of liberal feminism is to achieve complete gender equality in politics and at work.
2.2.3 Patriarchy and Traditional Gender Roles:
The word patriarchy is derived from the two Latin words pater and arch, pater means father and arch means rule. So the word patriarchy means “rule of the father”. Patriarchy is a social system in which the father or a male elder has absolute authority over the family group (Britannica.com). In other words it is a social system in which woman is under the control of man. In terms of feminism patriarchal society is bias against feminism. In patriarchal society women is considered as the object or toy and it has double standards for men and women to made women oppressed in society. It is social system in which women face in equalities in sex, race, class and religion.
In The Gender Knot: Unraveling Our Patriarchal Legacy, Allan G. Johnson define Patriarchy as, “A society is patriarchal to the degree that it is male-dominated, male-identified, and male-centered. It also involves as one of its key aspects the oppression of women (p 153)”. This definition clarifies the main concept of patriarchal society. In light of this definition in patriarchal society male is dominated and he has authority over all the aspects of life weather religious, political, educational, legal, economical and domestic. The male dominance suppresses the women and creates the idea that men are superior to women in power, hierarchy and wealth. The concept of patriarchal society promotes the idea that male is dominated to female in private and public spheres. Women are treated as the object which fulfills the desires of men. Women are oppressed from childhood. They are taught to respect and fallow male dominance in all the fields of life. Johnson further defines, “Patriarchal societies are male identified in the core cultural ideas about what is consider good, desirable, preferable or normal are associated with how we think about men and masculinity” (p. 154).
Walby defines patriarchy as, “Patriarchy as a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women” (Walby 1990, p.20). Man considers himself superior and woman inferior on the basis of tradition gender roles. In patriarchal society diverse sort of violence may be utilized to control and oppress women. Such type of violence by men indeed considered as valid and females are continuously routinely experienced by male savagery. This idea promotes rape, sexual harassment and develops insecurities of women.
Tyson (1999) explains that “Patriarchy continually exert forces that undermine women self confidence and assertiveness and points the absence of these qualities as proof that women are naturally, and therefore, correctly self-effacing and submissive” (p 85). He further explains patriarchy as, “any culture that privileges men by promoting traditional gender roles”. Tyson defines patriarchal woman as, “a woman has internalized the norms and values of patriarchy, which can be defined, in sort, as any culture that privileges men by promoting traditional gender roles” (p.85). Women are oppressed in many aspects of life like education, family and economy etc.
Traditional Gender Roles:
Tyson in his book Using Critical Theory explains, “According to traditional gender roles, men are naturally rational, strong, protective and decisive. In contrast, traditional gender roles, women are emotional (which in a patriarchy, usually means irrational), weak, nurturing and submissive” (p. 87). In the concept of patriarchy if a girl fallow norms and values of traditional gender roles considered as a good girl but if a girl violate traditional gender roles considered as a bad girl. According to traditional gender role good girls are those who remain in the four walls and they are polite and pure. It focuses that men are active and women are passive and men are owner of authority to suppress the women. According to traditional gender roles women are weaker, submissive and inborn inferior because of biological essentialism and social constructions. Traditionalist believed that first and foremost duty of woman is domestic chores and upbringing of children and they considered women as a domestic labor.
According to Tyson “Patriarchal ideology works to keep women and men in traditional gender roles and thereby maintain male dominance. Women are oppressed by patriarchy economically, politically, socially, and psychologically” (p, 91-92).
Gender role and traditional norms are the social and the most powerful norms in many societies. These norms define women as subordinate and inferior.
According to Tyson the ultimate goal of feminism is to change the world from traditionalist concept by promoting women’s equality (p, 92).
2.3 Feminist perspective in Saadat Hasan Manto’s stories:
Manto is considered as a feminist because he beautifully represented his female characters and their problems no other write in Urdu literature had done so for. He advocated women’s right and freedom for women from existing patriarchies. He depicted all the problems faced by women in vivid manner. As a writer he not only represents women but also advocate women’s freedom. He grasps women mentality through his characters and portrait real image of women. The idea of women’s liberation, at the time when Manto was composing, is distinctive from it is now a days. Broadly talking, raising a voice against exploitive educate of the society that underestimate ladies can be held to drop beneath the domain of women’s rights. Manto, through his fiction does this broadly. He plays the part of a representative for the thousands of ladies whose bodies had gotten to be war and become victim of the patriarchal society. He wrote relentlessly about women in his stories because he understood how society was unfair to them and it was his own way of committing to their cause alone crusader during his times.
Raza Rumi in Friday Times stated that “The construction and treatment of female characters by Manto turns them into complex and ambiguous metaphors for humanity. Manto characters appear as defiant and righteous, even their righteous, even their circumstances are mired in taboo and social marginalization” (Raza, 2015).
Maryam Mansoor in his article Saadat Hasan Manto and his Scandalous Women quoted: “Manto’s ground-breaking work and his interest in taboo topics, portraying women’s power and agency clarifies it as feminist literature which has left its mark on both India and Pakistan.”
Manto’s representation of violence against women in his work shows feminist work. He broke the traditional and conventional thought and pushes his readers to think beyond the religious and cultural boundaries. He rejected the conventional patriarchal norms of male dominance. He brought to the reader how a female is abused and utilized by women for their person fulfillment.
Whores who have over the long time been disregarded by society discover an uncommon put in Manto’s short stories. Not all like other fiction scholars, Manto offers the distresses of this rejected lesson of human beings. He digs profound into the inward self of whores and finds the lady in the haziness of her injured soul. With his recognized introduction he universalized this subject. ‘Skeena’ of Open it (Khol do) is the allegory of the womenfolk of our society which is still powerless to male chauvinism. She is the image of the ladies who are tenaciously falling causality of honor killing, corrosive assault and other shape of physical and mental torment. (Fazal Baloch January 12, 2009 dawn newspaper)
Manto always raises the basic essential questions around the ethical and moral values directing the lives of female. In a traditional society where females were seen as a substance of sexual delight and seems as a toy, Manto enables his female leading characters to investigate complex subjects related to sexual orientation, sexuality treachery.
One of the greatest poet and social activist Fahmida Riaz in the article of the News remarks: “It is strange that other writers, especially in Urdu, are so blind to the reality of woman. They would not even notice bravery or intelligence in their female subjects. On the contrary, they are capable of giving the most preserve “psychological” twist to the most remarkable traits in woman. Even today, manto stand more or less alone in the position that he takes on women. After Manto, there is none like Manto.” (06, May 2012)
Najma Manzoor in the essay ‘Manto, Aurat and Waris Alvi’ says that;
“Manto’s aristocracy is such that he never preaches but continues to enlighten reader’s mind and stir their conscience. Women have been subject to the humiliation and Manto through his stories has empathized with their plight and has shown solidarity with their cause. His portrayal of domesticated women and prostitutes are unique for the associates unconventional attributes for example determination, will, not being content in every situation and above all the ability to laugh” (Manzoor, 2006).
On the light of above statement critic Fahmida Riaz’s point of view is that because of that Manto is regarded as the one of the greatest and mature feminist. He saw women in same way he saw men (Riaz, 2006). He exposed cruelty of male dominated society. Through the representation of his female character he depicted that female body was the bearer of lot of violence. In Open it (Khol Do) a young girl became the victim of gang rape by the member of her own community. She became the victim of physical and mental torture. This s story shows male aggression and how male dominate society behaves, humiliate and degrade women. His stories and female characters depicts feminist struggle.
2.4: Critic’s Review on Ten Rupees, Mozell and Licence stories:
In Licence, Nesti decides to maintain her chastity and denies captivating a vocation by offering herself. In Mozell, the wonderful, strong and free spirited Jewish young lady penances herself to sphere a Sikh man at the time of Sikh Muslim riots. These women and their stories not as it were set up his feministic vision but moreover immortalize the humanistic in Manto. In Ten Rupees, the teenager prostitute Sarita is unacquainted of her condition that’s why the transactions with her patrons develop into occasions for her to travel in their motor cars. Said Isphita Chakraborty (january18, 2017)
Raza Rumi states that “Mozell is a free spirited woman who has control over her life. She overruns her religious leanings to save lives of two individuals of a different faith. She is intelligent, independent and far sighted unlike several men that surrounded her. (Rumi, 2015)
In Ten Rupees, Manto depicts the story of a blameless youthful young girl named Sarita who works as a part time prostitute. Crushing destitution has constrained men in trade for money. In depicting Sarita’s character, Manto emphasizes her guiltlessness and delicacy. She is perky, fun loving and cheery, like all youthful young girl in their youthful. The character portrayal tends to break absent from cliché symbolism of sex workers and peruses offers Sarita’s delight. Said Raza Rumi (February 13, 2015)
Maryam Mansoor in his article (Saadat Hasan Manto and His Scandalous Women May 3, 2017) states that “Mozell is a story about a Jewish woman who risks her life to save others. She can be perceived as a heroic character of sorts. It portrays how woman is valued in society in accordance to his appearance.
In Ten Rupees story Manto chooses a diverse character of a child prostitute. Sarita is a child prostitute who is in the commerce since of the family destitution but she is still appeared as another youthful young girl who likes to play and have fun with companions. Individuals by and large carry this idea that women who offer their bodies are heartless and distinctive from typical since of their calling. Manto through such articulation tries to rub line drawn amongst individuals and other individuals. Said by Archit Aggarwal and Pallavi Verma (November, 2015)
Amrita De in her research article (Revisiting Manto’s Bombay Stories from a gender perspective) states that “Mozell is strong and independent in full control her actions. She can see through the hypocrisy of the society and till her last breath, she stands true to what she believes in by rejecting the farce of communal violence altogether which only existed to legitimize mankind’s worst impulses. By projecting her on the rioters as a spectacle, she also achieves singular distinction as someone who rises to the occasion in all her redeem the sins of others. In a way, she is self-sacrificing, unapologetically so; a sacrifice that is more driven by will, rather than what society expects from women.”
C.Manikand and V.Umadevi on their research article (The Social Parodies in Short Stories of Saadat Hasan Manto) states that, “Saadat was a talented person who differ the theme character from one story to another. In Ten Rupees he introduces the child prostitution. The protagonist name Sarita, fifteen years old was committed by prostitution by the support of her mother. But not willingly, she involves in that act. Her insufficient status for being herself in that act. Manto differ the innocent girl’s fantasy world how she was in her own reality. He insisted this also a kind of darkness in their unfilled world.”
In Licence Manto did not need to make Nesti a legend, his as it were intension is here to paint an exceptionally reasonable picture of such strong but working ladies from modern society. His depiction the striking reality offer assistance women to giving them with the respect they were denied of such a long time. Said Pratyusha Mukhpadhyay (December 7, 2016)
Umshankar in a book review of (Manto: selected short stories) states that “Manto’s preoccupation with social ills is ably represented by Ten Rupees and Licence. The filth of society is counterbalanced by the innocence of a child prostitute in Ten Rupees. Licence is a stunning portrayal of abject helplessness of women in a face of a wolfish world.”(November 27, 2012)
This chapter discusses feminism, patriarchy and traditional gender roles. It explores the feminist perspective of Saadat Hasan Manto through his stories and reviews of different writers Manto as a feminist writer and also explores how he depicted different female characters of his stories and shares different shades of female characters. The present study aims to explore Saadat Hasan Manto is the advocate of women freedom and how manto represent different shades of women in oppressed society.
CHAPTER NO: 03 METHODOLOGY
The core objective of this thesis is to explore women freedom through the short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto. This chapter elucidates the methods approaches, research design and frame work of this dissertation. It also provides information about the tolls or framework of collection of data. Research uses qualitative method and textual analysis from a feminist perspective
3.2 Qualitative Research:
There are various definitions of qualitative research by different critics and authors but the fallowing idea is given by Creswell.
Creswell (1994) defines it as:
“Qualitative research is an inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explore a social or human problem. The researcher builds a complex, holistic picture analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in natural setting.”
It is used for amplification, relating and interpreting collecting data. Qualitative research is sort of social sciences investigate that collects and works with non-numerical data information and that looks for to translate meaning from these information that offer assistance us get it social life through the consider of focused on populaces and places. Qualitative research explores implications, translations, images, and the forms and relation of social life. Qualitative research used the method of textual analysis of books, notes, diaries, thesis, articles, journals, interviews, reports, published data and any of the written material.
3.3 Tools and Framework for Data Excreting:
This study focuses on the evaluation and analysis of women freedom and different shades of women in oppressed society. It merges the feminist theory and patriarchal theory for the set up of theoretical frame work. Feminism is an appropriate approach to analyze the text of the short stories due to the presence of strong patriarchal power which reflects the oppression of women in oppressed society. Research referred critical articles, journals, researches and relevant books liking to the text for explaining the idea of freedom of women and feminist perspective of Manto .The sampling frame slot is the selected short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto. The data uses the social research tool, to evaluate, interpret and analysis the text of the short stories Ten Rupees, Mozail and Licence.
3.4 Data Collection Method:
The research uses the method of qualitative data. It is non numerical data and it collects data in form or words. It is descriptive data. In Qualitative research various methods are used for data collection such as in-depth interviews, observations, focus groups and document analysis. This research uses the method of content analysis. It is common and important method of qualitative data collection. It is the process of gathering data from the primary and secondary sources. This study was conducted by excreting data from primary and secondary sources. The primary resource of data is text of the stories of Ten rupees, Mozail and licence. The secondary source of data is the related articles, journals, researches and related books linking to the work on these stories.
3.5 Descriptive study:
Ranjit Kumar states that “Descriptive study attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or programmed, or provides information about, say or living conditions of community or describes attitude towards an issue. The main purpose of such studies is to describe what is prevalent with respect to the issue/problem under study”.
In descriptive study data is collected without changing the environment. It describes the data and characteristics of the study to justify the present study.
3.6 Data Analysis:
It is the important part of the research. The present study is qualitative analysis of data and the research is taken from three short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto. Data analysis is active process to organize the structure and meaning of the study. The stories are analyzed in the light of feminist literary approach. It includes the interpretation of dialogues and themes to solve the research questions of women freedom and different shades of women in oppressed society. The study analyzed the patriarchal problems of women reflected through the main female characters of the story. It criticizes bitterly the traditional male dominated society and traditional gender roles and patriarchy.
3.7 Textual Analysis:
Textual analysis is the way for analyst to assemble data about how other human creatures make sense of the world. It is a methodology of a data gathering handle for those analysts who need to understand the ways in which individual of different societies and subcultures to make sense of who they are into the world in which they live. Textual Analysis is valuable for researchers working in social considers, media thinks about the mass communication, and may be indeed in humanism and philosophy.
Textual analysis involves interpreting and discussing of selected text. It can be interpretation of any sort of text like film, telecast programs, magazines, advertisements and textual documents in written form like books, thesis, research papers, and articles and so on. This study analyzes preferred written documents to elucidate different shades of women and freedom of women .Textual analysis is the important tool for the analysis of research.
This chapter discusses the techniques and methodology which has been used for the analysis of current study. It includes the data collection method, qualitative data and data analysis and textual analysis. The next chapter discusses the data and findings of the study.
CHAPTER NO 04: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
The first three chapter of the study focuses on the introducing, discussing the literature review and the methodology of the present study. The data is evaluated by the method of textual analysis in the light of feminist theory. The study focuses on the two main research questions dealing with the freedom of women and different shades of women in oppressed society in short stories Ten Rupees, Mozail and Licence. This chapter discusses and analyzes the situation of the finding of the present study
4.2 Discussion and Data Analysis:
4.2.1: How Manto is the advocate of women freedom?
Saadat Hasan Manto like his contemporary authors of post Premchand period Krishna Sobti, Ismat Chughtai, Bedi wrote about the female characters but his depiction of female character is quite different from his contemporary writers. He represented his female characters in short stories in a brilliant, unremarkable, unmatchable and unique manner as no other writer presents. He wrote about every subject of women and advocate freedom of women in a patriarchal society where a standard of life for male and female varies. The patriarchal society binds women in all forms of rights and it same happened with Nesti, her licence of driving cart was grabbed because she was women. He discussed how women are suppressed in patriarchal society, how they are viciously raped and forced to prostitution. Throughout his stories he raised voice against the sufferings of women by mocking the patriarchal norms. Manto depicts the manhandle to his female characters in a vivid and realistic manner, his work rethinks long held patriarchal ideas of foulness and absurd through joining up humanism with unthinkable. Here unthinkable is fair a man –made traditions that cannot recolor the humankind of the character. He criticizes the hypocritical patriarchal society through the depiction of leading female characters and supports women freedom.
In License short story through the depiction of his protagonist Nesti, he raises a big question on male dominated society where women is suppressed and their freedom and choice of decision making is big question. She experiences gender discrimination and suppressed attitude from society. Nesti a coachman’s wife suffering begins when police arrested his husband in kidnapping case. She makes continuous struggle for her right. She protests for her husband innocence but in spite of that his husband sentenced to two years’ locking up. She started living alone after the imprisonment of her husband Abu. Dino her husband friend drove coach on rent and gave her five rupees per day. But unfortunately her miseries rose when her husband died in the prison hospital because of tuberculosis. After the death of her husband the problems of livelihood started. Dino changed his attitude towards Nesti. He offers her marriage proposal but she refused his proposal. In reaction Dino gave her less money and made lame excuses of sluggish of business.
“ People were either trying to marry her or rape her or rob her. When she went outside she was met with ugly stares. One night a neighbour jumped the wall and advances towards her. Nesti went half mad wondering what she should do.”(Aatish Taseer, 2008)
People want to take advantage of her because of her loneliness. Many unsolicited hand came forward to exploit her in the guise of helping her out. Finally standing up her needs, she decided to earn her bread by driving coach herself. It is bitter criticism on patriarchal society where women are not liberated to live according to their wishes. At last she takes decision of harnessing the horse to the carriage and earns money for her living. Remanding herself of nobility and regard that work brings. When she started to be carried the coach the passengers and other coachmen tried to abused her with bad jokes, lustful comments and motions and talked ill of her. Because of the salacious comments and motions by individuals, she gets a feeling that individuals, in expansion to the rides, too purchase part of her body and soul. It was much unbearable for male authority that a woman become independent and earns money.
“One morning, the municipal committee men called her in and revoked her licence. Their reason was that women couldn’t drive coaches. Nesti asked, “Sir why can’t women drive coaches?’
The reply came: ‘They just can’t. Your licence is revoked.’”(Aatish Taseer, 2008)
In patriarchal society it’s unbearable that a woman can ride a chariot. The municipal committee grabbed her licence, the reason behind this was as well senseless to delineate. Concerning to them, a female cannot drive a chariot besides male. On the basis of gender roles her licence was rejected. According to committee a woman cannot drive coach besides male. The fiendish eyes of individuals do not permit her to live consciously in the society as she is constrained to donate up her driving permit for harlotry.
“Nesti said, ‘Sir, then take my horse and coach as well, but please tell me why women can’t drive coaches. Women can grind mills and fill their stomachs. Women can carry rubble in baskets on their heads and make a living. Women can work in mines, shifting through pieces of coal to earn their daily bread. Why can’t I drive a coach? I know nothing else. The horse and carriage were my husband’s, why can’t I use them? How will I make my ends meet? Milord, please have mercy. Why do u stop me from hard, honest labor? What am I to do? Tell me.’
The officer replied: ‘Go the bazaar and find yourself a spot. You’re sure to make more the way.’”(Aatish Taseer, 2008)
Committee officer had no solid reason for the grabbing her licence when Nesti asked him why I can’t run the coach. It was unbearable for patriarchal society that a woman drove a coach and lives her life with dignity. The committee exhorts her to sit a brothel (Kotha), that way she could indeed gain more. She is cleared out with no crave to address and talk. A youthful dejected young lady can as it were discover her right esteem in a “bazaar” by creating herself as “spot”. Manto’s despise for the society is clear where a lady cannot truly labor and gain a job by any other implies but offering her. This exposes the bitter reality of the society of that time when there were different standards for male and female.
“She sold the horse and carriage for whatever she could get and went straight to Abu’s grave. For a moment she stood next to it in silence. Her eyes were completely dry like the blaze after a shower, robbing the earth of all its moisture. Her lips parted and she addressed the grave, ‘Abu, your Nesti died today in the committee office.’
With this, she went away. The next day she submitted her application. She was given a licence to sell her body.”(Aatish Taseer, 2008)
She heads to incineration where her spouse Abu lies dead. Eyes filled with tears and in a choking voice she tells him: Abu, your Nesti passed in committee assembly today. This passing is what might donate one a permit to offer one’s body. Manto has the capacity to attack a reader’s awareness and uncover to them the irreverent standard that stay mothered beneath layers of convention, ethical quality and advance. Women in our society should remains in four walls of home and do their household chores and they are enforced to live in under male controls. As a self-governing woman Nesti does not want depend herself on others. She wants to be a self-governing woman and refused marriage proposal from Dino. She started running the horse-cart without depending on men control but it was unbearable for patriarchal society that Nesti became independent and liberated woman.
By the depiction of Nesti Manto criticizes the male dominated society which is the barer in women freedom. According to Manto our society permits a female to run a brothel (Kotha) but does not permit her to run a horse cart. His statement shows the hypocrisy of patriarchal society. Patriarchal society restricts women in four wall boundaries not allows them to work to earn for their needs. The words from the licence that society permits a lady to run a brothel, but not a horse-cart are frequently resonated while talking about Manto’s promotion for the ladies to be permitted to work. It was the statement in which he advocates women freedom and their rights. Through the depiction of Nesti he shows the social slavery of women and by criticizes the society he advocates the women freedom from traditional gender roles and patriarchy.
Manto recognizes the exploitative teach of the society and raises the principal questions approximately the ethical and moral values directing the lives of females. While he was lively the preservationists held him in mishandle for pushing women’s opportunity and advocating the women freedom.
4.2.2: How Manto represents different shades of women in oppressed society?
There are numerous scholars in numerous distinctive dialects who talked with respect to female in the subcontinent but no one could be compared with Saadat Hasan Manto .The way he depicted his female leaden character is outstanding. He composed exceptionally distinctive stories on females for who cannot discover illustrations in other dialects by other writers. He didn’t conversation approximately females of regal families and solid background but the center of his stories was females of common life.
Saadat Hasan Manto represents different shades of women through his leading characters. He wrote about diverse picture of females such as whores, pimps, hoodlums to inspire his readers to notorious individual were too humans. He represented women from different social and religious groups who became the center of all bad forms in the past as well as presently as well. It is well known that Manto’s characters generally contain of fallen and rejected who are scowled upon for their evil. Without a doubt, his best stories, and the one for which he is recalled most, are those in which he delineates, with incredible dominance, fallen ladies and whores against the background of smudged paths and ghettos. He valiantly came up with stories that managed with subjects such as whores and pimps and too highlighted annihilating sexual ladies subjugation of his period. Numerous modern and princely ladies journalists venerated his quirk of depicting reality and giving ladies with the regard, keenness and respect they longed for and genuinely merited. The way he depicts female character in his stories are exceptional and unremarkable. He represents different pictures of females of in his composition and depicts the issues confronted by ladies in society. In his stories, he displayed prostitutes some places as a mother as a sister as a spouses, as a cherished as a girl. He highlighted the truth that indeed those females are women and have a heart, which gets harmed with the societal design and people’s conduct. The study focuses the characters of Sarita, Mozail and Nesti. Mozail and Nesti the main protagonists break absent clichés symbolism of sex-workers and mortify per users by which they never cosign these ladies to the positions of subservience and accommodation.
In Ten Rupees short story Manto portrays the story of a blameless youthful young lady as a prostitute named Sarita who works as a part time prostitute. Pounding destitution has constrained her widowed mother to send her girl, scarcely in her teenagers, for outings with men in trade for cash. He represents how a mother forced her daughter into occupation of prostitution and pretended as her daughter is innocent.
“In the chawl, virtually everyone knew that Sarita’s mother had sent her young daughter into prostitution. But since these were people who treated each other neither well nor badly, they felt no need to expose her when she’d say, ‘My daughter’s an innocent, she knows nothing of this world.” (Aatish, 2008)
Manto depicted that time when people were in hand- to-mouth condition and sold their possess girls and sisters or those young ladies were constrained to it would be ideal if you their clients. Manto portray the picture of child prostitute where as her pimp is her own mother due to poverty. When Sarita is the age of playing dolls with other same age group children, she had given instruction to take appropriate care to the clients. As a proletarian prostitute, she is paid for her outings with the men.
““In the meantime, her mother arrived. She did Sarita’s hair quickly and said, ‘Listen, darling, speak nicely to the men and do whatever they ask. They are important; they’ve come in a motor car.’ Then addressing Kishori, she said, ‘Now hurry up, take her to them. Poor fellows, I don’t know how long they’ve been left waiting.’”(Aatish Taseer, 2008).
The immature prostitute Sarita is ignorant of her state of affairs since the business with her patrons ended up event for her to in their favor motor cars. She is blinded by a incredible adore. Sarita cherishes cars so much that her transactions with men ended up flaxen another occasion for her travel in a motor car, to feel the impacts of wind to see the trees around her chase; she barely knows she is a prostitute. Her mother and Kishori send her into prostitution.
“Sarita was very happy to hear that rich men with motor cars had come for her, granted she was more interested in the rich men who drove them. She loved riding in motor cars. When the car would roar down the open streets and the wind would slap her face, then everything would become a whirlwind and she would feel like tornado tearing down empty streets.” (Aatish Taseer, 2008).
The mother was not only sending her daughter in the world of prostitution but moreover has a heart difficult sufficient to desolate the blamelessness of her young girl who unexpectedly accepts that her activities are common to each young ladies y at her age. By depicting Sarita Manto represent different shade of woman in oppressed society. In patriarchal society every one criticizes whores and prostitutes without knowing the reasons why she becomes prostitute. In traditional society no one criticizes men because of them brothels are running. Our society always criticizes the women but no one raise voice to criticize male. In Ten Rupees story three men in spite of helping Sarita and her mother they used Sarita as a playing toy who amused them and become source of their pleasure. Saadat Hasan Manto in his work Why I Write”: Essays by Manto quotes that “A man remains a man no matter how poor his conduct. A man, even if she were to deviate for one instance, from the role given to her by men, is branded as whore. She is viewed with lust and contempt. Society closes on her doors it leaves ajar for a man stained by same ink. If both are equal, why our barbs reserved for woman?”
In other story Mozail he represents women in oppressed story. Mozail is capable illustration of Manto’s work in which he subverts social codes of marginalization and male domination by utilizing female character who is reside exterior the residential, patriarchal circle of subcontinent family. In Mozail, Manto represented a young Jewish lady. In spite of that fact she is Jewish by birth, but hates sectarianism and religious intolerance, caring a small routine profound quality and favors to spend a carefree maverick life. Her discourteous behavior now and then shocks his per users, but they can eventually discover her heart, full of sympathy and humanity for her individual human beings. She is gallant character of sorts. It depicts how a lady is esteemed in society in agreement to her appearance. A Sardarji falls in adore with her but she decays him. Afterward, when Sardarji’s fiancée is in fear of assault by devout agitators, Mozail gets to be the friend in need and gives the fiancée her robe, so as to offer assistance her elude. Mozail at the point, totally bare, goes up against the Muslim agitators, who appear to be diverted by her. One of the agitators offers her his sheet but she said NO.
“This is my lover. He’s bloody Muslim, but he’s so crazy that I always call him a Sikh,’ she said to the men.
More blood poured out of her mouth. ‘Damn it!’ she said.
Then she looked at Tarlochan and pushed aside the turban with which he had tried to cover her nakedness.
‘Take away this rag of your religion. I don’t need it.” (Molted Dawn, pg 71-72)
She is bold, and it is her dismissal of conventional values that empowers her to secure a traditional Sikh couple from dangerous communal viciousness. Mozail is a free spirited lady who has control over life. She puts aside her devout leanings to spare lives of two people of a distinctive confidence. She is shrewdly, gusty, free and far sighted not at all like a few men that encompass her.
In the representation of Mozail he depicts a different shade of women in the oppressed male dominant society. In this story he reflects the partition time and shows how women become the victims of the partition. In the partition time human become a worse enemy of other human. At the time of extreme nationalism Mozail save live of a couple. Manto’s ground- breaking work and his intrigued in tabooed themes, depicting women’s control and organization classifies it as women’s activist writing, which has cleared out it’s stamp on subcontinent.
In short story Licence by representing Nesti he shows the brutality of male dominated society which permit a lady to run a brothel but not a horse cart. By portraying that character manto creates that shade of women that wants freedom from the patriarchal society and wants to be independent. The licence is the troubling story of an ethically a sound lady, who in confront of challenges is willing to maintain her chastity and constancy to her husband’s recollections. But the fiendish eyes of individual do not permit her to live deferentially in the society as she is constrained to allow her up driving permit for harlotry. Manto’s hate for the society is clear where a lady cannot truly labor and win a vocation by another implies but offering herself.
Manto is at his female best when he unequivocally holds the suppositions that a lady must be seen from her possess viewpoint by man, which to Manto’s incredible disillusionment man has failed to do, and through his characters he makes a powerful request to man through his no hold barred stories which flourish in sex and scum to tune in to the voice of woman regarding their longings of body and soul.
This section of dissertation discusses and analyses through the protagonist of the studies how Manto advocates the women freedom in the rigid patriarchal society of the subcontinent and presents different and unique shades of women in oppressed society by presenting the leading characters of the stories Ten Rupees, Mozail and Licence. This chapter gives the answer of the related question of research.
CHAPTER NO 05: CONCLUSION
This research aim was to explore the advocacy of women freedom and different shades of women in oppressed society. The study has attempted to answer the questions from the Ten Rupees, Mozail, licence short stories of Saadat Hasan Manto. The research in essentially based on how women are suppressed in patriarchal society. The research has analyzed and confers the different perspective of women in oppressed society. The protagonist of the selected stories suffers due to the basic societal and fixed norms for women. The leading characters present different shades of women and shows that in this there are different rules and regulation for men and women. Nesti is the causality of society’s brutality. She becomes victim in male dominated society. The stories moreover considers the malignant impacts of patriarchal philosophy where male are free from all restrictions, morality and norms. In the end committee suggest Nesti to run brothel in spite of a horse cart. By pointing out the barbarism of male dominated society advocates women liberation.
The writer depicts how people are raping, murdering and killing innocent persons in the name of religion and nation. In this war Mozail saves two innocent lives and she herself suffers in oppressed society. At the time when she was dying and laying naked in that moment she never comforts herself with the rag of religion.
In ten rupees short story through representing Sarita, Manto depicts how young girls drawn in the trade of prostitution. He composed about the respect of their souls and demanded that a fallen ladies soul remained untouchable and immaculate no matter how loot her body was.
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