Problems In Education System Of Pakistan
Education is most important in life. It is just education which enables a person to survive in this world. To be educated, the educational system is most important. Federal ministry of education and Government of Pakistan is mainly regulating education system. It follows article 25 A of the constitution of Pakistan that obligate state to provide free education especially on primary to middle education. In Pakistan education is divided into six levels pre-school, primary, middle, high (SSC), intermediate (HSSC), graduation, and university education leading to master/ MS / M.Phil. And PhD. Education system includes institution for delivering education and faculties like teachers, student’s resources and rules. The educational system is not evenly distributed in all cities, districts and provinces of Pakistan for example, Baluchistan that is largest province of Pakistan by area is not much groomed as compared to Punjab that is the largest province by population. Education system mainly depends upon schools. And in Pakistan schools have been divided into different sectors like public and private sectors. These divisions are due to the conflict in class difference. Children of the rich person and the poor person do not have equal rights. Education has become expensive. Middle-class families got admissions in Governments schools, and government schools are deprived of trained teachers. Most of the people they choose teaching profession just because they do not get any other job. The educational system is not created based. Students are not learning they just became bookworm to get marks. There is gender discrimination in education system e.g in FATA 29.9% males are educated and just 3% females are educated. Girls are bound to stay at home. These are some major problems that lead to decrease in literacy rate.
Pakistan is ranked at 113th of 120 registered UN number according to research by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).In Pakistan, 180 million people reside making it 6th most populous country in the world. Pakistan has the lowest literacy rate that is just 58 %.Pakistan stands 160th in all countries of the world. Literacy rate had declined by 2% from 60% to 58%.Total enrollment is 97,462,900.Out of which primary is 22,650,000 secondary is 2,884,400 and post-secondary is 1,949,000.Net enrollment rate (NER) shows a decline of 3% at National and provincial level in Pakistan. Only Sindh remain stable by 60% while Punjab declined from 64% to 61%, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa declined from 54% to 53%. Baluchistan has witnessed a significant decline from 47% to 44%. The overall gross enrollment rate (GER) also shows a decline of 3%.
Education is most important and worthy. Initially it was controlled by the federal government but later on once 18th amendment was being accepted in parliament than education ministry was shared in between provincial and federal government.so there was the battle in between all provinces, each province is willing to introduce the best education plan.
General understanding of education is to be able to read and write, but unfortunately, Pakistan is deprived of higher literacy rate. As Pakistan is subdivided into different provinces each province is facing different literacy scenarios. At that time educational system was best in province Punjab, scholarship and distribution of laptop etc such plans were started, but with the passage of time, their focus shifted from education to other plans and development. Punjab having more than 56% population. 3.8 million People are illiterate which mean that millions of people over the age of 15 are unable to read and write any language. Similarly Sindh was at the 2nd best educational plan, but later on, their focus shifted from education to terrorism and law and order situations. Sindh having 25 million population and literacy rate in rural areas is 50%. Most of the children are unable to read and write, child labor is also witnessed. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has 50% literacy rate. It is the much denser province with population and having the number of private and public schools. Baluchistan has lowest literacy rate, as although it is the largest province by area but not as much groomed.
Literacy rate in Pakistan district wise represents the educational system as well as it shows inequality in between rural and urban areas of Pakistan. The literacy rate is in haripur (KPK) 93%,in Islamabad (capital territory) 90%,in Jhelum (Punjab) 90%,in Karachi(Sindh) 87%, in Sawat (KPK) 80% in Rawalpindi (Punjab) 74%,in Rahimyar khan(Punjab) 71%, in Faisalabad (Punjab) 61%, in Quetta (Balochistan) 62% , Ziarat (Balochistan ) 60% , Mianwali (Punjab) 60%,in layyah (Punjab) 59%, in Sheikhupura (Punjab) 59% , in Dera ghazi khan (Punjab) 59%, Bhakkar (Punjab) 56%, in Lahore ( Punjab) 56%, in Sialkot (Punjab) 54%,in Attock (Punjab) 33%, in Toba Tek Singh (Punjab) 30%, in Chakwal (Punjab) 29%,in Gujranwala (Punjab) 10%.
The data shows literacy rate is higher in the urban area 74% than in the rural area which is just 49% with 78% male and 68% female in urban areas.
Province wise data shows Punjab and Sindh lead with 61% (71% Boys and 55% girls) and 60% (71% boys and 55% girls) respectively and followed by KPK 53% ( 71% boys and 35% girls) and Baluchistan 44% (61% boys and 25% girls).
The education system is facilitating 56% male students and 44% female students. The overall education system is served by 41% male teachers and 59% female teachers.
In pre, primary school public sector has 52% enrollment and private sector has 48%.Primary schools the public sector 86% and private sector 14%, middle schools have public sector37% and private sectors63%, total enrollment in private sector 35% and in public sector 65%.For higher secondary education level private sector 65% has and public sector34%, total enrollment in the public sector is 78 % and in private sector is 22 %.degree college is 89 % in public sector and 11% in private sector, total enrollment in the private sector is 14% and 86% public sector. There are total 163 universities in both public and private sectors out of which56 % in public sector and 44% in private sectors. Total enrollment is 84% in public universities and 16% in public universities
Technical and training institutions are 30% in public sector and 70% in private sectors. Total enrollment in public sector56% is and in private sector44 %.And Religious Schools 3% in public sector and 97% private sector. There is 209 teacher training institute out of which75 % are in public sector and 25% in private sector. Total enrollment in the public sector is 99% and in private sector 1%.
There are certainly major issues regarding availability of sources in Pakistan like electricity, water, toilets and boundary wall of the school. Many schools are deprived of these facilities which are necessary for the good educational system.
In Pakistan 53%primary, 76%middle, 91% high and97 % higher secondary schools have availability of electricity. And 67 % primary, 82% middle, 92 % high and 96% higher secondary schools have availability of water. And 67% primary, 85 % middle, 93% high and 97% higher secondary schools have availability of toilets for students. And 71% primary, 87% middle, 91% high and 95% higher secondary schools have the boundary wall.
This data shows how much our educational system is deprived of facilities. Similarly, there are certain major problems that lead to higher illiteracy rate. Education system is based on unequal lines which represents class difference, regional disparity and gender discrimination. First, all this difference must be resolved, every citizen and person of the country should have equal right of learning. Technical education must be given and promoted in country. Teachers must be well trained. There should be special training centers for enhancing and flourishing capabilities, hidden talent and skills of teachers. When teachers will be highly capable they will give rise to an educated generation and in this term Pakistan will be a successful country. And one most important loss of Pakistan is due to illiterate parents who didn’t allow their girls to go school and to become educated. Which shows a worst effect on whole family and society. There should be some steps taken to aware parents to allow their girls for schooling. In Pakistan ratio between girls and boys who went school is 4:10 respectively. Second cause of this problem is poverty. People can’t afford expense of education. Government should strictly follow the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which says “The state of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum period”. Government is expanding just 2% of total GDP, it must be at least 4%. And there should be proper planning for promoting education and for improving educational system. Government should take action to compensate these problems because education is pillar of success.