MASS MEDIA RESEARCH AND INTRODUCTION NINTH EDITION ROGER D. WIMMER JOSEPH R. DOMINIC CHAPTER 03
Ethical consideration in conducting research should not be overlooked. The researcher who deals with the human subject must be must ensure to all precautions are taken to avoid any potential harm to the subject. Nearly every research study could affect subject in some way either psychologically or physically. Researchers should not violate the rights of participants. Generally, three theories are involved in research ethics. Deontological theories based on rules /moral laws define show appropriate action in all situations. Moral duty of all humans. In mass media research investigator might develop a categorical imperative about deception. Deception is researcher does not want or see universally practiced by all, nor does the researcher wish to be deceived. Due to this deception does not use in research either how much its benefits and what circumstances. The Teleological /balancing theory is to maximize the good and minimize the harm. For example in mass media fields improve the authenticity of news and reduce the slanting and exaggeration in news elements. Philosopher John Stuart Mill called Utilitarianism individual then acts in the way that maximizes good and minimize harm. A mass media researcher who follows the utilitarianism approach must balance the good that will come from a research project against its possible negative effects. It depends on the researcher to the appropriate use of deception in an experiment. The difficulty of this approach is that it sometimes difficult, if not possible, to expect all of the harm that may develop from a given research design. The theological approach is examined in institutions, especially in mass media research. While the relativism approach argues that there is no complete right or wrong way to behave. Behavior that is judged wrong in our culture may be ethically good in another culture. Everything is fair according to the relevancy of their culture. There are some ethical principles while general ethical principles are difficult to conduct in the research area. Ethical principles are autonomy/self-determination researcher respect the rights of others and do not violate the rights. Some of the ethical problems are voluntary participation /informed consent because of the researcher when hands over the questionnaire to the respondents he/she be must clear their study objectives and expectations which enables the respondents to solve questionnaire easily. Concealment (is without holding certain information from the subject) and Deception is deliberately providing false information. Both practices raise ethical problems. Protection of privacy: anonymity is a guarantee which is given by researcher to respondent it encourages the respondent to be honest and candid in their answer. In mass communication research includes more sensitive topics such as pornography on the internet, coverage of terrorism and hate speech their research will be increasingly scrutinized by IRBS. The researcher is also responsible for maintaining professional standards in analyzing and reporting their data. Follow the parameters of ethics in the publication process. The online research raises special problems concerning ethics.