Introduction To Management In Easy Words
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
One of the most activities of a human is known managing, Management means take decisions after analysis of available sources to accomplish a goal subject to minimization of cost and maximization of profit. It is a field of study in which different techniques are used subject to created strategy by the professionals. In simple words, we can say that management is an art in which we learn that how to get work done by the people or with the people in an organized way. As we know that everyone the different opinion on a situation in this context the following definitions of management are mentioned to define that what is the management?
F.W. Tayler said that it is an art to know what you want to do and how can you do without wasting your available sources.
Henry Fayol Said that to manage your perception in organizing way, Implement it and time to time take feedback to control the accomplishment of your desired goal.
Peter F Druker said that management is a work which has own tools to develop a strategy, It has own skills for implementation and it has own techniques to bring improvement.
ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT
For the better understanding of management, we need to know about the elements of management that are known the essential part of the management. As per research conducted on principles of management by an American University, the following elements were presented.
Efficiency Orientation- It defines a process in which the managers take a decision on the basis of available resources to accomplish the desired task. While taking a decision the main aim is considered to minimization of cost and maximization of profit. It is considered that if the efficiency of the decision making ignored by the manager, the outcomes could not match with our desired planning.
Decision Oriented- It shows the decision making the power of the managers in which managers took decision according to the situation and control over the behaviour of labours to achieve predetermined goals.
People Orientation- It defines that management is a process in which managers utilize the efforts of people for the accomplishment of short as well as long-term goals with an organized strategy.
Function Oriented- It defines the main part of the management in which the managers determined their goals, create the strategy to implement and time to time take feedback to control the situation.
MANAGEMENT IS AN ART OR SCIENCE?
Management is like a coin that has two faces one is a science and another one is an art. Let me explain that how? It is a science because a systematic knowledge collected and different realities and fundamental of principles are found on the basis of continuous experiment. And it is an art because of the decision was taken by the managers on the basis of past experience and their wisdom. In this context we can say that management consist elements of science that can be considered as fundamental of principles of management. And management also include skills and talent which shows that it is an attribute of art.
PRINCIPALS OF MANAGEMENT BY HENRI
Henri Fayol (1841-1925) presented his point of view that there are 14 principles of management which have to follow by the managers to manage an organization. Principles that were presented by Henri are written below.
Division of Labor- Workload should be divided/subdivide on the labour as per requirement of the job and competency of the labours.
Authority & Responsibility- Manager should grant authority to their subordinate in a specific circle that will be beneficial to realize their responsibility. Because labours realized their responsibility when they exercise their authority.
Unity of Command- There must be a unity of command it means that subordinate must be accountable front of one senior the instruction must be given one boss not given by many bosses.
Unity of Direction- Without unity of direction unity of action cannot be taken so subordinate must work for one object and directions.
Equity- At a workplace, all subordinate should be considered equally on the basis of justice, work responsibility and reward. Because discrimination can de-motivate the labours and de-motivation of the labours are not considered as a good sign.
Order- At a workplace, the arrangement should be proper and systematic. In simple words the arrangement of things (working tools) is called material order and placement of people according to their job is called social order.
Discipline- Sub ordinate should obey the orders and directions of his superior. We can say that discipline means to obey the rules and regulation at workplace and respect of the authority.
Initiatives- Management should provide an opportunity to the subordinate to express new ideas as per past experience and skills. This activity can motivate the subordinate and boost their moral level because subordinate gives value to the organization if the value is given by the organization.
Remuneration- Remuneration should be as per policy and on the basis of the principle of equity because it is known a big factor to motivation and loyalty.
Stability of Tenure- At workplace stability of tenure is an essential part of management because if management doesn’t care about the stability of subordinates for a tenure the subordinate will not show their interest to work and day to day they will be demoralized.
Scalar Chain- It shows the hierarchy of management that defines the ranking of the superiors highest to lowest. Communication should follow the principle of hierarchy of management.
Sub-Ordination of Individual Interest to Common Goal- It defines that management should motivate the subordinate regarding determined goals and create value towards their interest to a common goal. With this activity, management can get highly outcomes.
Spirit De Corps- At workplace create the spirit of teamwork with the help of this activity another worker will work harder. And other workers will learn skills.
Centralization- It means the decision taken by the management and decentralization means the decision taken by the subordinate. It is a debatable question that which policy management has to adopt? Management should focus on centralization and delegate authority in a circle to the subordinate, management should find an optimum level of delegation of powers.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
There are five functions of management that were presented by Henri Fayol in last century (1916) when he was a French engineer. The five functions are written below.
Planning- It is known a most important and very first step of the management. In this step, management analyzes the situation and determined all available sources to minimize cost and maximize outcomes. During the planning, management should keep in mind the concept of efficiency because all strategies are created on the basis of this performance.
Organizing- It is possible that an organization has capital, labour and etc but if the management is not able to make a right structure believe me the all the resources will be considered useless. Management should create a good structure for the organization they should keep in mind the material arrangement as well as social arrangement.
Commanding- Management must deliver instructions or directions in a clear way because if the manager is not clear by himself how can he expect that the subordinate will understand his command or instructions. So communication should be clear and without barriers.
Coordination- Once the strategy created and implemented by the management. Management should take feedback from the subordinates and analyze their behaviour towards their task orientation. The manager needs to coordinate with the subordinate to take feedback regarding deficiencies to improve strategy.
Controlling- After the implementation of all strategy management need to control all activity like prepare performance report, analyze the progress towards achievement of desired goals. Management should bring change in their strategy with the passage of time.
THEORY OF X & Y
Douglas McGregor presented a theory with the name of the theory of X workers and Theory of Y workers at the workplace. Both theories are written below and according to my point of view after analysis manager should adopt the theory of Y.
Workers are lazy towards achievement of goals
Workers are not lazy inherently they can be motivated,
Always dislike work
Don’t dislike just need to create interest.
Try little to accomplish tasks
They will be best if an opportunity is given.
Little ambitious and avoid responsibility.
Need to give them an ambition they will take all responsibilities.
MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS
Management means a process to an analysis of situations for planning, implement it with the help of various strategies and control the situations after taking feedback. The person who performs all task of the management is known as the manager. A manager must be competent to analyze critical situations, motivate the subordinates and able to bring changes in the organization with the passage of time.
Two types of managerial skills that are mentioned below are considered to be a good manager.
Primary Skills- Primary skills means the manager must have the following three skills to show himself a good manager.
Conceptual Skills- It means that manager must be able to create an image of a situation into his mind to view the issue for resolving.
Technical Skills- It means that manager should have some technical skills like the manager of a factory must well aware of the functions of machinery.
Human Skills- It means that manager should not emotionless personality but he should not an emotional person who forgot his profession. He should be emotional to some extent and a professional by his behaviour.
Secondary Skills- Secondary skills means the manager must have the following three skills to show himself a good manager.
Problem Solving Skills- Manager must be the owner of analytical skills who can analyze the problem and suggest the solution for internal as well as external problems.
Communication Skills- Manager must have strong communication skills with subordinates as we ass with top management.
Leadership Skills- Manager should be competent to be a leader and he has the desire to be a leader. Because on the basis of leadership manager can create an asset from the subordinate for future.
SKILLS AT VARIOUS STAGE OF MANAGEMENT
On the basis of the hierarchy of management skills are distributed at the different level of management in an organization. Distributions of skills are written below.
Conceptual Skills- Top management must have conceptual skills because the top management is responsible for planning and develop strategies to accomplish organizational goals.
Human Skills- Middle management must have these kinds of skills because they are responsible for the implementation of strategies that was developed by the top management.
Technical Skills- Supervisors or subordinates must have technical skills because they have to work as per policy implemented by the middle management.s a manager, I would like to suggest that a manager should have above mentioned three skills doesn’t matter what is the level of manager. If the manager has these skills the manager can take a better decision and develop a better strategy for resolving the several issues.
To conclude I would like to say that management is not just a word it is a systematic process to set your desired goals and achieve it with the help of different strategies. Management provides an opportunity to analyze the situation on the basis of your skills and experience. After study management, I realized that leadership is a part and parcel of the management to get desired outcomes because if we study the history of management there was lack of leadership so the outcomes were totally different as compared to now a day. Management is not just for an organization or for business we can say that every common person is a manager if the common person follows the instruction of management the desired outcomes of life goals can be achieved by the common man.