Internet of Things

Hadiqa Atiq Rattu



It is the inter-networking of smart devices and other items embedded with electronics, software and sensors that enable these objects to collect and exchange data.


The idea behind of internet of things is that it connects our everyday devices to the network that is, the internet. So the things can be controlled and monitored using a single internet connected device.

  • The concept of network of smart devices was discussed in 1982, with the Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University was connected to internet: able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold.
  • The term “Internet of Things” is coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999.

The “IoT Network” isn’t a completely separate entity … rather, it utilizes the existing IT network as its foundation, and then supplements it with operational technology (OT) and the billions of sensors, devices, and other smart objects.


IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit.

IoT involves extending Internet connectivity towards standard devices, such as desktops, laptops, smartphones and tablets, and everyday objects. Embedded with technology, these devices can communicate and interact over the Internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled.

The basic idea behind engineering is to do something for the betterment of the mankind. To make the life easy and luxurious, all old and new technologies and inventions have been and are being created for this purpose but one of the greatest invention is probably, the Internet. It has become a basic need of the every individual. Large amount of data can be easily sent from one place to another with no limitations. Today, internet is not limited to just sharing information but also used in e-commerce, shopping, schooling, jobs and many other seemingly countless tasks.

One of the tremendously vast fields is Internet of Things (IoT) which has transformed our lives and made them easy. By using IoT based systems, our electronic devices are connected to the network through which communication starts and data is transferred from the desired location to our devices and helps us to monitor and control the present condition remotely and we can effortlessly monitor all the situation.


  • Media
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Infrastructure management
  • Manufacturing
  • Energy management
  • Medical and health care systems
  • Building and home automation
  • Transportation

IoT Delivers Extraordinary Benefits

Connected Rail Operations

Using ruggedized cameras and communications equipment that can handle the vibration and jolts of a rapidly moving train, a connected network of IoT-enabled cameras can help improve passenger safety by analyzing and correlating events at various stations, as well as on trains – for actionable security intelligence.

The intelligence gained from multiple connected systems can help identify bottlenecks, enable routes and schedules to be tuned for greater efficiency, and even avoid collisions. Likewise, sensors attached to critical parts such as wheels can proactively determine if a part needs to be replaced – before it can cause a devastating accident. Sensors can also alert supervisors if the train is being operated in an unsafe manner, or alert the operator of important changes in track conditions.

Smart City

By connecting the city’s infrastructure that controls traffic signals, it can help save fuel usage and reduce traffic congestion, reducing pollution

Controlling road lighting based on the actual need – such as when cars are approaching – can save millions of dollars and conserve energy; parking applications can let drivers know where the spots are available, and “dynamic pricing” based on need can be a new revenue source for the city.

City services such as garbage pickup can be made significantly more efficient, reducing costs and therefore adding to the city’s bottom line


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