In order to overcome potassium deficiency synthetic fertilizers are used such as potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate and monopotassium phosphate. Natural organic fertilizers which also increase retention capacity are used to overcome potassium deficiency such as homemade comfrey liquid, seaweed meal, composted bracken and banana peels and wood ash. Adequate moisture and liming acid soil help the uptake of potassium and increase its retention by reducing leeching.

Importance of Plant Nutrients, its Deficiency Disease and Treatments
Maryam Sana
Maryam Sana

Importance Of Plant Nutrients, Its Deficiency Disease and Treatment

Keywords: Protein Synthesis, Brown Scorching, Chlorosis, Necrosis, Transport Protein, Robbing, Stunted Growth, Leeching, Epsom salts

Subscribe Our Official Youtube Channel For Video Blogs and Video Articles (Click Here)

Potassium

Importance

Potassium is an essential nutrient for the plant metabolic processes because it is involved in regulation of plant growth, protein synthesis, activation of some enzymes, the maintenance of cation, anion balance in the cytosol and vacuole. Potassium is required for the opening and closing of stomata because sodium-potassium pump makes the surrounding guard cell flaccid and turgid.

Deficiency

Potassium plays a very important role in disease resistance. Potassium deficient plant are more susceptible to disease than plants with increase potassium and showing decrease in the intensity of many diseases.

Potassium also strengthened the plant cell and provide host and pathogen resistance and decrease the cell permeability and susceptibility to tissue penetration. It also incorporates silica, which is adequately present in cell wall and strengthened the epidermal layer of cell wall.

Symptoms

Potassium deficient plants are more susceptible to diseases and leads to frost damage. This deficiency is more common in vegetable crops and fruits. It also affects the plant growth, root development and reduce the production of seed and fruit. Potassium deficiency leads to strong chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) between leaf veins, brown scorching, curling of leaf tips and purple spots appearing in underside of leaf.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

In order to overcome potassium deficiency synthetic fertilizers are used such as potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate and monopotassium phosphate. Natural organic fertilizers which also increase retention capacity are used to overcome potassium deficiency such as homemade comfrey liquid, seaweed meal, composted bracken and banana peels and wood ash. Adequate moisture and liming acid soil help the uptake of potassium and increase its retention by reducing leeching.

Potassium 
Importance 
Potassium is an essential nutrient for the plant metabolic processes because it is involved in regulation of plant growth, protein synthesis, activation of some enzymes, the maintenance of cation, anion balance in the cytosol and vacuole. Potassium is required for the opening and closing of stomata because sodium-potassium pump makes the surrounding guard cell flaccid and turgid.
Deficiency
Potassium plays a very important role in disease resistance. Potassium deficient plant are more susceptible to disease than plants with increase potassium and showing decrease in the intensity of many diseases.
Potassium also strengthened the plant cell and provide host and pathogen resistance and decrease the cell permeability and susceptibility to tissue penetration. It also incorporates silica, which is adequately present in cell wall and strengthened the epidermal layer of cell wall. 
Symptoms 
Potassium deficient plants are more susceptible to diseases and leads to frost damage. This deficiency is more common in vegetable crops and fruits. It also affects the plant growth, root development and reduce the production of seed and fruit. Potassium deficiency leads to strong chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) between leaf veins, brown scorching, curling of leaf tips and purple spots appearing in underside of leaf.
Treatment and Corrective Measures
In order to overcome potassium deficiency synthetic fertilizers are used such as potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate and monopotassium phosphate. Natural organic fertilizers which also increase retention capacity are used to overcome potassium deficiency such as homemade comfrey liquid, seaweed meal, composted bracken and banana peels and wood ash. Adequate moisture and liming acid soil help the uptake of potassium and increase its retention by reducing leeching.

Calcium

Deficiency

Calcium deficiency is a disease and mostly occur due to insufficient level of water, low transpiration in tissues that’s why it couldn’t be transported in phloem.

Causes

Acidic, sandy, or coarse soils often contain less calcium. Uneven soil moisture and overuse of fertilizers can also cause calcium deficiency. At times, even with sufficient calcium in the soil, it can be in an insoluble form and is then unusable by the plant or it could be attributed to a “transport protein”. Soils containing high phosphorus are particularly susceptible to creating insoluble forms of calcium.

Calcium and Magnesium are opposed within the plant cells, and have antagonistic interactions. As a result, a homeostatic balance between Ca and Mg within the plant is necessary for optimal growth and proper development.

Symptoms

Calcium deficiency symptoms appear initially as localized tissue necrosis leading to stunted plant growth, necrotic leaf margins on young leaves or curling of the leaves, and eventual death of terminal buds and root tips. Generally, the new growth and rapidly growing tissues of the plant are affected first. The mature leaves are rarely if ever affected because calcium accumulates to high concentrations in older leaves. Calcium deficiencies in plants are associated with reduced height, fewer nodes, and less leaf area.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

In order to overcome the calcium deficiency in plants agricultural lime is added to acid soil in order to gain pH of 6.5 which is ideal for plant growth. Organic matter should have added to plants in order to improve its moisture retaining capacity and synthetic sprays of calcium chloride is used to reduce its deficiency.

Acidic, sandy, or coarse soils often contain less calcium

Phosphorus

Deficiency

Phosphorus is required for the biosynthesis of genetic material and is important processes such as photosynthesis, genetic transportation of nutrients and phospholipid cell membrane. Plants take phosphorus in the form of interconvertible salts such as monohydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate.

Symptoms  

Deficiency of phosphorus leads to slow rate growth, stunted growth, smaller leaf sizes, lessened number of leaves and create imbalance in the shortage of carbohydrates. Plants produce energy through the process of photosynthesis but due to phosphorus deficiency it is unable to use by plants which leads to the buildup of excess carbohydrate in plant which leads to darkening of leaves and in some plants it can turn leaves a dark purplish color.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

Phosphorus deficiency can be overcome by adding bone meal, rock phosphate and phosphate fertilizers.

Phosphorus 
Deficiency 
Phosphorus is required for the biosynthesis of genetic material and is important processes such as photosynthesis, genetic transportation of nutrients and phospholipid cell membrane. Plants take phosphorus in the form of interconvertible salts such as monohydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate.
Symptoms   
Deficiency of phosphorus leads to slow rate growth, stunted growth, smaller leaf sizes, lessened number of leaves and create imbalance in the shortage of carbohydrates. Plants produce energy through the process of photosynthesis but due to phosphorus deficiency it is unable to use by plants which leads to the buildup of excess carbohydrate in plant which leads to darkening of leaves and in some plants it can turn leaves a dark purplish color.
Treatment and Corrective Measures 
Phosphorus deficiency can be overcome by adding bone meal, rock phosphate and phosphate fertilizers.

Nitrogen

Deficiency

Nitrogen is commonly used in limited supply for healthy growth of plant. Nitrogen deficiency occur when high carbon rich organic matter is added to the soil. Many microorganisms break down carbon sources to make it available for nitrogen absorption. This is known as “robbing” the soil of nitrogen. Many nitrogen fixing bacteria convert the atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates to make it usable by the plants.

Symptoms

Deficiency of nitrogen leads to strong chlorosis and reduce the chlorophyll content in leaves which result in pale yellow color of leaves. Older leaves turn completely yellow. Nitrogen deficient plants leads to general starvation in which plant look thin and pale yellow in color. Flowering, fruitlings, protein and starch content are reduced. Reduction in protein results in stunted growth dormant lateral buds.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

Nitrogen deficiency can be prevented in the short term by using grass mowing as a mulch, or foliar feeding with manure, and in the longer term by building up levels of organic matter in the soil. Sowing green manure crops such as grazing rye to cover soil over the winter will help to prevent nitrogen leaching, while leguminous green manures such as winter tares will fix additional nitrogen from the atmosphere. Fertilizers like ammonium phosphatecalcium ammonium nitrateurea can be supplied. Foliar spray of urea can be a quick method.

Deficiency of nitrogen leads to strong chlorosis and reduce the chlorophyll content in leaves

Sulphur

Importance

Sulphur is one of the molecular building blocks for a number of proteins, hormones and vitamins, such as vitamin B1. It appears in many important plant tissues, such as in seeds and in cellular moisture. In the form of sulphate, sulphur fulfils an important role in the water equilibrium in the plant, as well as in the soil.

Deficiency

Light green coloration in one or more large/older leaves. Strong purple coloration in the leaf stems (due to the production of anthocyan pigment). More leaves change colour, and the light green colour changes in places to deep yellow. When the shortage is extreme, the plant has lots of deep yellow leaves with purple stalks and leaf stems. Additionally, growth and flowering are inhibited. With outdoor cultivation, a shortage of sulphur rarely occurs. In potting soil, a sulphur deficiency can occur when the pH is too high, or too much calcium is present.

Symptoms

It would be expected that the earliest symptoms would first appear as a light greencolouring in the young leaves. However, in practice, we’ve repeatedly noticed that the symptoms were the most obvious in the older leaves.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

It is easier for the plant to take up sulphate at a lower pH level. Check the pH of the medium, and lower it if necessary with sulphur, saltpeter, phosphor or citric acid. When there is a deficiency, the best thing to do is add sulphur in an inorganic form with a fertilizer containing magnesium, Epsom salts for hydro, and kieserite in soil. If organic fertilizing is preferred, composted

mushroom fertilizers, and fertilizers from animal sources can be used. Sulphur is only absorbed by the plant in the form of sulphate, which appears in the soil during decomposition of organic sulphur compounds. This process takes time. Therefore, preventative work is advised, along with a well composted fertiliser.

Sulphur is one of the molecular building blocks for a number of proteins

Magnesium

Importance

Magnesium is an essential macronutrient that comes from soil and when dissolved in water is absorbed through plant roots. Magnesium is a central atom of chlorophyll molecule and help to capture sunlight needed for a photosynthesis thus magnesium is required to give leaves there green colour. It is located in enzymes and is used for the metabolism of carbohydrate and in the cell membrane stabilization. It is involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues.

Deficiency

Without sufficient amounts of magnesium, plants begin to degrade the chlorophyll in the old leaves. This causes the main symptom of magnesium deficiency, interveinal chlorosis, or yellowing between leaf veins, which stay green, giving the leaves a marbled appearance. Due to magnesium’s mobile nature, the plant will first break down chlorophyll in older leaves and transport the Mg to younger leaves which have greater photosynthetic needs. Therefore, the first sign of magnesium deficiency is the chlorosis of old leaves which progresses to the young leaves as the deficiency progresses.Magnesium deficiency in plants is common where soil is not rich in organic matter or is very light. Heavy rains can cause a deficiency to occur by leaching magnesium out of sandy or acidic soil. In addition, if soil contains high amounts of potassium, plants may absorb this instead of magnesium, leading to a deficiency.

Symptoms  

Magnesium deficiency appears on older leaves first as they become yellow between the veins and around the edges. Purple, red, or brown may also appear on the leaves. Eventually, if left unchecked, the leaf and the plant will die.

Treatment and Corrective Measures

Providing Magnesium for Plants Providing magnesium for plants begins with annual applications of rich, organic compost. Compost conserves moisture and helps keep nutrients form leaching out during heavy rainfall. Organic compost is also rich in magnesium and will provide an abundant source for plants. Chemical leaf sprays are also used as a temporary solution to provide magnesium. Some people have also found success with using Epsom salts in the garden to help plants take up nutrients easier and improve magnesium deficient soil.
 

Magnesium 
Importance 
Magnesium is an essential macronutrient that comes from soil and when dissolved in water is absorbed through plant roots. Magnesium is a central atom of chlorophyll molecule and help to capture sunlight needed for a photosynthesis thus magnesium is required to give leaves there green colour. It is located in enzymes and is used for the metabolism of carbohydrate and in the cell membrane stabilization. It is involved in many enzyme activities and the structural stabilization of tissues.
Deficiency 
Without sufficient amounts of magnesium, plants begin to degrade the chlorophyll in the old leaves. This causes the main symptom of magnesium deficiency, interveinal chlorosis, or yellowing between leaf veins, which stay green, giving the leaves a marbled appearance. Due to magnesium's mobile nature, the plant will first break down chlorophyll in older leaves and transport the Mg to younger leaves which have greater photosynthetic needs. Therefore, the first sign of magnesium deficiency is the chlorosis of old leaves which progresses to the young leaves as the deficiency progresses. Magnesium deficiency in plants is common where soil is not rich in organic matter or is very light. Heavy rains can cause a deficiency to occur by leaching magnesium out of sandy or acidic soil. In addition, if soil contains high amounts of potassium, plants may absorb this instead of magnesium, leading to a deficiency.


Symptoms  
Magnesium deficiency appears on older leaves first as they become yellow between the veins and around the edges. Purple, red, or brown may also appear on the leaves. Eventually, if left unchecked, the leaf and the plant will die. 
Treatment and Corrective Measures
Providing Magnesium for Plants Providing magnesium for plants begins with annual applications of rich, organic compost. Compost conserves moisture and helps keep nutrients form leaching out during heavy rainfall. Organic compost is also rich in magnesium and will provide an abundant source for plants. Chemical leaf sprays are also used as a temporary solution to provide magnesium. Some people have also found success with using Epsom salts in the garden to help plants take up nutrients easier and improve magnesium deficient soil.
%d bloggers like this: