Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistae. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.

History of Nobel Prize
Rutba Khan
Rutba Khan

History of Nobel Prize

Keywords: International Awards, Swedish, Norwegian, Scientific, Academic, Culture, Scientific Advances, Medicine, Physiology, Genetics

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The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields

HISTORY:

Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistae. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.

In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled the merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. It was Alfred’s brother Ludwig who had died; the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral hemorrhage. He was 63 years old.

Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel’s last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the “greatest benefit on mankind” in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace.

The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901

FREDERICK SANGER:

In the 1970s, Frederick Sanger developed techniques to sequence DNA, for which he received his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.

Twenty years ago, on 26 June 2000, came the announcement that the majority of the human genome had been sequenced, quickly followed by the publication of 90 percent of the sequence of the genome’s three billion base-pairs in the journal Nature, in February 2001.

Sequencing means determining the exact order of the so called base pairs in a segment of DNA. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

FREDERICK SANGER:

In the 1970s, Frederick Sanger developed techniques to sequence DNA, for which he received his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1980.

Twenty years ago, on 26 June 2000, came the announcement that the majority of the human genome had been sequenced, quickly followed by the publication of 90 percent of the sequence of the genome's three billion base-pairs in the journal Nature, in February 2001.

Sequencing means determining the exact order of the so called base pairs in a segment of DNA. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

IRENE JOLIET CURIE:

Irene Joliot-Curie was born in Paris on 12 September 1897, as the daughter of Nobel Laureates Marie Skłodowska and Pierre Curie.

As a young woman during World War I Irene worked together with her mother to provide mobile X-ray units for wounded soldiers. She resumed her studies at the university in Paris after the war and later worked at the institute that her parents had founded. It was there that she conducted her Nobel Prize-awarded work together with Frederic Joliot, whom she married in 1926.

Irene Joliot-Curie was born in Paris on 12 September 1897, as the daughter of Nobel Laureates

HANS JENSEN:

Hans Jensen, born on this day in 1907, started his Nobel Lecture by highlighting how important his teachers had been for him.

Jensen did significant research on nuclear shell structure with his co-laureate Maria Goeppert Mayer. In 1949, they developed a model in which nucleons were distributed in shells with different energy levels. The model reflected observations of directions in which nucleons rotated around their own axes and around the center of the nucleus.

For their research they were awarded the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physics “for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.” They shared the prize with Eugene Wigner.

Hans Jensen did significant research on nuclear shell structure with his co-laureate Maria Goeppert Mayer. In 1949, they developed a model in which nucleons

PERL:

Through a series of experiments between 1974 and 1977, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the USA, Perl and his colleagues discovered that the electron has a relative some 3500 times heavier – the tau lepton.

Perl‘s discovery of the tau lepton was the first sign that a third “family” of fundamental building blocks – particles that can be built up to create everything in our universe – existed.

Perl was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the tau lepton.”

Perl and his colleagues discovered that the electron has a relative some 3500 times heavier - the tau lepton.

TONI MORRISON:

Wise words from the first African American woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize: Toni Morrison, one of the most powerful storytellers of our time.

Morrison was born into a working-class family in Lorain, Ohio in the United States. She read a lot as a child and her father’s stories, taken from the African-American tradition, later became an element in her own writing. Her works often depict difficult circumstances and the dark side of humanity, but still convey integrity and redemption. The way she reveals the stories of individual lives conveys insight into, understanding of, and empathy for her characters.

the first African American woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize Toni Morrison
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