Gender Disparity in Education
Education is perceived as a procedure of learning, training and knowledge for all people. It benefits societies to improve their knowledge and information. Education is one of the major human rights and important tool to deduct poverty and inequality in the economy.
The word gender deals with the assigned duties and activities of men and women in the society and their roles and the moral obligations fluctuating among them from one area to another area. These fluctuations in the role, provision of basic facilities and rights to men and women are the major indicators of gender disparity in a society. The effect of gender disparity could be judged from the following fields of life in any society such as free social status, families, customs, geographic values and some aspects of religion. In the world population the females are the 50 percent of the total population and they do 1/3rd part of the total work completed, but they just have 1/10 share in the total world income and they receive lower than 1/100 of the total property of the world and they have legal rights to this property that is registered to them by name. There are different faces of gender disparity but in this research study, the main focus is the gender disparity in academic performance. There are nearly 900 million uneducated people and 65 percent among them are females in the world. In developing countries, females receive less education as compared to males.
Gender gap is a most important reality of daily life in most countries of the entire world, especially in emerging nations, where gender gap between both male and female are existing in political participation education and as well as in labor market or household activities in this era the situation of these inequalities are some better in growing nations than in the previous time, but the circulation of gender disparity is very higher, especially in Africa and South Asia.
The ratio of the number of schools and teachers for girls to boys is a significant factor to analyze the gender disparity in education.The gender disparity in education can be judged from the fact that the male education rate is 67 percent and the female rate is 44 percent (GOP, 2009). Access to education is the measure of an average of male-to-female literacy ratio, net school enrollment in primary, secondary and tertiary level and female share of teachers. Some studies show that fewer girls as compared to boys enter in each level of schooling as the level of schooling increases then girl’s participation decreases faster. The male is dominated and has many authorities as compared to females and they have some standards and status. The total literacy rate of Pakistan is about 54 percent out of that 42 percent is female literacy rate, but rural areas this rate have declined to 29 percent (GOP, 2007). Female education level depends on the living standard of the family and education of household.
Pakistan is situated in Western and Southern Oriental area surrounding Afghanistan, Iran, Indian, and the Arabian Sea. In 2010 an approximated residence is more than 170 million truly. Just about 64 reside in non-urban places, which is the two third of the people in this country. Males and females are per the rate of 108 men per 100 females.
The position of women in Pakistan is diverse from other European nations. Gender is one of the developing doctrines of Pakistan’s economy. It is a duty of women to run a house and performs various household works. Women play a role of mother and spouse but a male governs a work from outside the home and act his powerful part as a wage earner, males and females are abstracted assigned to two separate planets. Pakistan has not given importance to women’s education. Girls education has been neglected by our society to twin criteria. GDP (Gross domestic product) has a positive relationship with female’s education.
Pakistan ranked in the list of those developing countries where gender disparity is at the higher level. There are different ways of gender disparities in different sectors of Pakistan such as in employment, distribution of resources, basic rights, health and education but this study only elaborate gender disparity in education at different age wise enrollment and qualification levels and the effects of these variables on the per capita income of the household. Pakistan ranked second with the highest number of the children out of school because of poverty and lack of education is the important factor of income poverty. The effect of gender disparity is rapidly moving in all the fields and areas of life in Pakistan (UNDP, 1998). There are two major factors such as education and health which are the main source of human capital development, which have the positive effect on female’s income.
Pakistan is one of those countries which has lowest literacy rate in the world ($52.58 million), it is expected to rise to 69 % in the coming years.In Pakistan, 6.5 million children are out of the school of which 80 percent never enrolled in school, the reason behind this is economic and non-economic constraints such as disparities among gender. There are variations in the gross enrollment rates of the girls at different levels of education. In Pakistan, only 10 percent Balochi-Pathan rural girls complete primary school as compared with 40 percent boys and 55 percent of urban Punjabi girls as compared to 65 percent of urban Punjabi boys.
The main cause for not sending girls to school and high dropout rate can be due to traditional, attitudinal, financial and infrastructural factors. Gender disparity is the result of discriminatory public policy; if fewer schools are built for females then more are constructed for males. The analysis of some studies showed that poor people have low income and low education. They have much-limited sources so they prefer to educate just male rather than female due to poverty. It is stated that there are traditional beliefs about gender prohibit human capital investment for girls. These are also the main cause for girls’ limited school participation (Vella, 1994). Gender disparity to attain basic education in rural areas is higher than urban areas. There are three main causes for the decreased investment in girls’ enrollment rates are 1. Fewer outcomes from the education of the females, 2. No direct benefits from investment in female’s education, 3. Social Preference.