Bumblebee and honeybee is used for pollination of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commercially. Both genus of bees provide maximum pollination services with high economic returns. Honeybee species plays a parallel role in the cross-pollination of economic crops and medicinal plants and conservation of natural flora with the production of honey, and contributes nearly 80% in insect pollination and considered best pollinators, and especially Apis mellifera value US $200 billion productions annually worldwide, notably through crop pollination. Approximately 250 identified species in a single genus Bombus meaning ‘booming’ has been recognized internationally, and Bombus species worth 14-billion-euro production of the globe.

Foraging behavior and pollination ecology of Bumblebee and honey bee in Pakistan
Zulnorain Sajid
Zulnorain Sajid

Foraging Behavior and Pollination Ecology of Bumblebee and Honey bee in Pakistan

Keywords: Pollination, Ecology, Bumble Bee, Honey Bee, Pakistan, Agricultural Crops, Bee Keeping, Biodiversity, Pollinate Plants, Cross Pollination

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Pollination is the most effective ecosystem service for the biodiversity of plants on earth, which is a pollen transfer that allows for fertilization and sexual reproduction between plants. Pollination permits the reproduction of plants provide the fruit, the seeds and the leaves we consume and most of the flora of our natural world. Numerous and sometimes odd methods for ensuring pollination has been established. Some pollination methods are used to move pollen from males to female plant parts, such as insects (entomophily), bats (chiropterophily), birds (ornithopily), reptiles (saurophily) and small non-flying mammals (therophily).

 

Pollinators are key components of global biodiversity. Pollinators belong from diverse insect orders that are Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera and deliver a key ecosystem service of pollination that is vital for the maintenance of agricultural crops and wild plant communities. Insect pollinators play an indispensable role in the pollination of entomophilous food crops. More than 80 percent of overall pollination activity is achieved by insects. Without these pollinators, yields for some fruit, seed and nut crops can decrease by over 90%.

 

Non-bee insects have been shown to be important pollinators, but bee pollinators are more concerned. The family Apidae includes bumblebees, solitary bees, stingless bees, and honey bees. More than 25,000 bee species belonging to more than 4,000 genera from order Hymenoptera are pollinators of important wild and cultivated crops, and 75% of main agricultural crops rely on insect pollinators for fruit set and seed development globally. Furthermore, Pakistan covers a wide and various climatic zone as well as ecological ecosystems, from the sea level to the luxuriant mountains, with a wide variety of soils, temperature, sunshine, wind speed, high altitude, rainfall, and rich flora and fauna. Congenial climatic conditions and country bee flora provide excellent opportunities for bee diversity expansion.

 

Bumblebee and honeybee is used for pollination of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commercially. Both genus of bees provide maximum pollination services with high economic returns. Honeybee species plays a parallel role in the cross-pollination of economic crops and medicinal plants and conservation of natural flora with the production of honey, and contributes nearly 80% in insect pollination and considered best pollinators, and especially Apis mellifera value US $200 billion productions annually worldwide, notably through crop pollination. Approximately 250 identified species in a single genus Bombus meaning ‘booming’ has been recognized internationally, and Bombus species worth 14-billion-euro production of the globe.

 

In Pakistan 61 key pollinate plants (26 fruits, 19 vegetables, 7 oilseeds, 4 grain legumes, 2 aromatics, and 3 nut shrub plants) rely on a pollination of honeybee and the production value of pollination-dependent crops equates to US$ 1590 million in Pakistan consequently, fruit crops lead to 980 million, vegetable crops to US$ 320 million, nut crops to US$ 150 billion, oil-rich seed crops 130 million and spices 4 million US $.

 

Different scientists describe the importance of specific crop pollination in the presence of honeybee hives which is the production of mustard crops increased by 30%, production of sarsoon and toria increased by 47%, cucumber, and cauliflower up to 28-32,5% and 23% respectively, clover yield increased 100 %, yield of Sunflower and radish has risen to 18,7 and 22 percent respectively and the onions seed set increased 62-93 percent in several districts of Pakistan including Matli, Badin and Golarchi. Number of pods and number of grains per pod are 815 and 20, seed weight and yield of canola crop also rises and in sunflower hybrid production seed set ratio, weight of seeds, number per head of seed-filled, and per head of seed yield enhanced due to honeybee pollination.

 

In Pakistan, few honeybee and bumblebee species are artificially reared under control condition due to their economic importance and in order to meet the demands of farmers for crop pollination particularly, European honey bee Apis mellifera and European Bumblebee Bombus terrestris as these species produces significant numbers of foraging workers and adapts to artificial environment very well are more commonly used species at farm level. Honey bees generating various products including honey, royal jelly, bee venom, queen bee, bee pollen, bee wax, sting, propolis used on food crops, medicinal and other marketable items and vital pollination services provided to support a wide range of wild and cultivated crops. Honey is based primarily on fructose and glucose. A honey jar is the product of the hard work of a bee and needs to take up to 40,000 foraging flights to reach millions of flowers. These non-agricultural business practices may give a wide range of economic contributions.

 

Bee’s pollination assists farmers in crop production and also aid in ecosystem worldwide. Farmers in Pakistan buy beehives at rent for the pollination of field crops. Consequently, bee replaces the manual pollination, increased yield of agriculture crops up to 5 to 50%, quality of food crops and represents a vital ecosystem service of enormous value to humanity. Furthermore, beekeeping industry is flourishing and increases the employment sources for agriculture graduates and farmer community of Pakistan. Due to the struggle of apiculture research laboratory Koont, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi and honeybee research institute PARC there are about 450,000 honey bee colonies generating 12,000 Metric Ton honey annually, and exporting 0.504 million kg worth Rs 528 million in the year 2015 -16- nearly more than 7000 apiculturist are involved in raising of exotic iconic bee Apis mellifera in modern beehives and 27000 households are getting income from beekeeping industry.

 

There are significant population of students in Pakistan who got degree in agriculture than other study fields and these students are especially belong from poor families but in Pakistan pathetically after graduation, these students have very minute job opportunities. One shining opportunity is self-employed business one of them is beekeeping industry. As the beekeeping sector grows, many agriculture graduates are self-employed for their living as commercial beekeepers. Other than honey, hive goods will increase beekeepers ‘incomes because their processes are comparatively higher than honey. Royal jelly Rs 30,000 per Kg, pollen Rs 2000 per Kg and bee wax Rs 1100 per kg in global market. Consequently, the problem of unemployment some little is solved for agriculture graduates.  In several areas, e.g. medical and pharmaceutical industries, there are actually countless products from the honey bees. The only bee-collected pollen is one of these, and bee venom could be used for the treatment of Covid19 because of its antiviral properties.

Pollination is the most effective ecosystem service for the biodiversity of plants on earth, which is a pollen transfer that allows for fertilization and sexual reproduction between plants. Pollination permits the reproduction of plants provide the fruit, the seeds and the leaves we consume and most of the flora of our natural world. Numerous and sometimes odd methods for ensuring pollination has been established. Some pollination methods are used to move pollen from males to female plant parts, such as insects (entomophily), bats (chiropterophily), birds (ornithopily), reptiles (saurophily) and small non-flying mammals (therophily).

Pollinators are key components of global biodiversity. Pollinators belong from diverse insect orders that are Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera and deliver a key ecosystem service of pollination that is vital for the maintenance of agricultural crops and wild plant communities. Insect pollinators play an indispensable role in the pollination of entomophilous food crops. More than 80 percent of overall pollination activity is achieved by insects. Without these pollinators, yields for some fruit, seed and nut crops can decrease by over 90%.

Non-bee insects have been shown to be important pollinators, but bee pollinators are more concerned. The family Apidae includes bumblebees, solitary bees, stingless bees, and honey bees. More than 25,000 bee species belonging to more than 4,000 genera from order Hymenoptera are pollinators of important wild and cultivated crops, and 75% of main agricultural crops rely on insect pollinators for fruit set and seed development globally. Furthermore, Pakistan covers a wide and various climatic zone as well as ecological ecosystems, from the sea level to the luxuriant mountains, with a wide variety of soils, temperature, sunshine, wind speed, high altitude, rainfall, and rich flora and fauna. Congenial climatic conditions and country bee flora provide excellent opportunities for bee diversity expansion.

Bumblebee and honeybee is used for pollination of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commercially. Both genus of bees provide maximum pollination services with high economic returns. Honeybee species plays a parallel role in the cross-pollination of economic crops and medicinal plants and conservation of natural flora with the production of honey, and contributes nearly 80% in insect pollination and considered best pollinators, and especially Apis mellifera value US $200 billion productions annually worldwide, notably through crop pollination. Approximately 250 identified species in a single genus Bombus meaning ‘booming’ has been recognized internationally, and Bombus species worth 14-billion-euro production of the globe.

In Pakistan 61 key pollinate plants (26 fruits, 19 vegetables, 7 oilseeds, 4 grain legumes, 2 aromatics, and 3 nut shrub plants) rely on a pollination of honeybee and the production value of pollination-dependent crops equates to US$ 1590 million in Pakistan consequently, fruit crops lead to 980 million, vegetable crops to US$ 320 million, nut crops to US$ 150 billion, oil-rich seed crops 130 million and spices 4 million US $.

Different scientists describe the importance of specific crop pollination in the presence of honeybee hives which is the production of mustard crops increased by 30%, production of sarsoon and toria increased by 47%, cucumber, and cauliflower up to 28-32,5% and 23% respectively, clover yield increased 100 %, yield of Sunflower and radish has risen to 18,7 and 22 percent respectively and the onions seed set increased 62-93 percent in several districts of Pakistan including Matli, Badin and Golarchi. Number of pods and number of grains per pod are 815 and 20, seed weight and yield of canola crop also rises and in sunflower hybrid production seed set ratio, weight of seeds, number per head of seed-filled, and per head of seed yield enhanced due to honeybee pollination.

In Pakistan, few honeybee and bumblebee species are artificially reared under control condition due to their economic importance and in order to meet the demands of farmers for crop pollination particularly, European honey bee Apis mellifera and European Bumblebee Bombus terrestris as these species produces significant numbers of foraging workers and adapts to artificial environment very well are more commonly used species at farm level. Honey bees generating various products including honey, royal jelly, bee venom, queen bee, bee pollen, bee wax, sting, propolis used on food crops, medicinal and other marketable items and vital pollination services provided to support a wide range of wild and cultivated crops. Honey is based primarily on fructose and glucose. A honey jar is the product of the hard work of a bee and needs to take up to 40,000 foraging flights to reach millions of flowers. These non-agricultural business practices may give a wide range of economic contributions.

Bee’s pollination assists farmers in crop production and also aid in ecosystem worldwide. Farmers in Pakistan buy beehives at rent for the pollination of field crops. Consequently, bee replaces the manual pollination, increased yield of agriculture crops up to 5 to 50%, quality of food crops and represents a vital ecosystem service of enormous value to humanity. Furthermore, beekeeping industry is flourishing and increases the employment sources for agriculture graduates and farmer community of Pakistan. Due to the struggle of apiculture research laboratory Koont, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi and honeybee research institute PARC there are about 450,000 honey bee colonies generating 12,000 Metric Ton honey annually, and exporting 0.504 million kg worth Rs 528 million in the year 2015 -16- nearly more than 7000 apiculturist are involved in raising of exotic iconic bee Apis mellifera in modern beehives and 27000 households are getting income from beekeeping industry.

There are significant population of students in Pakistan who got degree in agriculture than other study fields and these students are especially belong from poor families but in Pakistan pathetically after graduation, these students have very minute job opportunities. One shining opportunity is self-employed business one of them is beekeeping industry. As the beekeeping sector grows, many agriculture graduates are self-employed for their living as commercial beekeepers. Other than honey, hive goods will increase beekeepers 'incomes because their processes are comparatively higher than honey. Royal jelly Rs 30,000 per Kg, pollen Rs 2000 per Kg and bee wax Rs 1100 per kg in global market. Consequently, the problem of unemployment some little is solved for agriculture graduates.  In several areas, e.g. medical and pharmaceutical industries, there are actually countless products from the honey bees. The only bee-collected pollen is one of these, and bee venom could be used for the treatment of Covid19 because of its antiviral properties.

If we compare the pollination efficiency of honeybee and bumblebee, honey bee is considered as the most contributing towards the crop pollination, but bumblebees are more efficient and competent pollinators because of their buzzing behavior, efficiency to forage at low temperature, vibration to burst the pollen sacs, sunlight, high flower visitation speed at low temperature, High speed of pollination and solitary colony structure.  Secondly, Bumblebees could fly and pollinate flowers under cool conditions due to their better thermoregulatory abilities being unsuitable to honeybees and other solitary bees, and they are much more productive than honeybees due to their long tongue and faster pace of foraging. Moreover, under unstable conditions such as stormy weather and low temperatures, they are able to forage Thirdly, these bees are suitable for both open field conditions and enclosed and protected farming systems like a variety of greenhouse crops.Last but not least, many horticultural crops are grown in greenhouses for commercial purposes like tomato, pepper, strawberry, cucumber, brinjal, peach and apple in order to meet the increase food demand, which requires insect pollinators throughout the year and bumblebee serve the purpose effectively due to their morphological features and maximize the crop yield. Due to these characteristics bumblebees are best pollinators among other insect pollinators including honeybee also globally.

In northern areas of Pakistan bumblebees are natural pollinators particularly in the high altitude regions of Himalaya. Apart from that, Inherent bumblebee population relies on plant species structure, flowering composition and abundance in a specific region. It is suggested that honey production be located in areas where wildlife plantation and crop farming are common. In Punjab, Chakwal, Mianwali, Attock, Sargodha, Duska are ideal places for honeybee farming, whereas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Karak, Kohat, Sawat and Bannu, Chitral are the most appropriate locations. Quetta Ziarat valley in Baluchistan, Naseerabad, and Kalat. In Sindh some of Thatta, Shujawal, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad and Gularchi districts, according to discussions with experts, are appropriate for honey production. In addition, the mild climate and bee flora throughout the country offers great opportunities to expand beekeeping. In all provinces including the northern regions, the FATA and AJK there is honeybee flora present in large areas. Northern areas, FATA and AJK could sustain over 1000,000 Apis mellifera colonies. Aside from this 160,000 hectare of mangroves in the coastal area, there is also another possible honey source to explore.

The major source of floral plants  for the bumblebee in the northern area of Pakistan are:  Mary thistle, Globe thistle, Lesser knapweed, Wild daisy Bellis, Centaurea blue, Sunflower, Blue Thistle, Saw-wort, Zinnia, Daisy, Brachychiton, Dicliptera, Baikhar, Sichuan Gold,  Chrysanthemum, Yellow bells, Cucumber, Musk melon, Tori, Field bindweed, Pink morning glory, Rockrose, Persimmon, Kachnar,  Amaltas,  Lupin flower, Black locust, Clover, Gladiolus, Sage, Dead-nettle white Pudina, Okra, Hollyhock, Rose of Sharon, Sleeping beauty, Foxglove pink, Apple , Buttercup, Tomato, Brinjal, Lantana  and Banafsha,  and important crops in Pakistan, including alfalfa, clover, almond, melon, soybean, sunflower, cucumber, mustard, apricot, cherry, peach, citrus, pear, persimmon, loquat, shain, Kalonji, prune, apple, mosquite, Sheesham, plum, ber, cantaloupe, okra, rapeseed, carrot, onion, avocado, kiwi, acacia, cranberry blueberry, in different ecological areas are most likely to require honeybee pollination.

Bumblebees are social insects as they live in colonies, and have one generation in a year constitute of variety of castes for reproduction, foraging, defense and other mandatory chores for their continuance. Furthermore, its life cycle has two phases Solitary phase and Social phase. During solitary phase, bumblebee spends about 6-9 months in diapause in the soil after successful mating and after emergence from diapauses in spring, Queen lay diploid or haploid egg on their own crave relying on the stage of colony expansion. After that, these queens commence by laying a batch of workers that aid them in bringing up of upcoming brood during social phase. Apropos the termination of colony, drones and young queens are produced and after the successful mating, these queens go in diapause period whereas the rest of colony ceases. Colony initiation, mating, and diapause are crucial aspects of artificial bumblebee breeding.

Honeybees and bumblebees keep records of suitable host plants for food reserve and develop interactive responses to their rapid learning capabilities.

If we compare the pollination efficiency of honeybee and bumblebee, honey bee is considered as the most contributing towards the crop pollination, but bumblebees are more efficient and competent pollinators because of their buzzing behavior, efficiency to forage at low temperature, vibration to burst the pollen sacs, sunlight, high flower visitation speed at low temperature, High speed of pollination and solitary colony structure.  Secondly, Bumblebees could fly and pollinate flowers under cool conditions due to their better thermoregulatory abilities being unsuitable to honeybees and other solitary bees, and they are much more productive than honeybees due to their long tongue and faster pace of foraging. Moreover, under unstable conditions such as stormy weather and low temperatures, they are able to forage Thirdly, these bees are suitable for both open field conditions and enclosed and protected farming systems like a variety of greenhouse crops.Last but not least, many horticultural crops are grown in greenhouses for commercial purposes like tomato, pepper, strawberry, cucumber, brinjal, peach and apple in order to meet the increase food demand, which requires insect pollinators throughout the year and bumblebee serve the purpose effectively due to their morphological features and maximize the crop yield. Due to these characteristics bumblebees are best pollinators among other insect pollinators including honeybee also globally.
In northern areas of Pakistan bumblebees are natural pollinators particularly in the high altitude regions of Himalaya. Apart from that, Inherent bumblebee population relies on plant species structure, flowering composition and abundance in a specific region. It is suggested that honey production be located in areas where wildlife plantation and crop farming are common. In Punjab, Chakwal, Mianwali, Attock, Sargodha, Duska are ideal places for honeybee farming, whereas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Karak, Kohat, Sawat and Bannu, Chitral are the most appropriate locations. Quetta Ziarat valley in Baluchistan, Naseerabad, and Kalat. In Sindh some of Thatta, Shujawal, Mirpur Khas, Hyderabad and Gularchi districts, according to discussions with experts, are appropriate for honey production. In addition, the mild climate and bee flora throughout the country offers great opportunities to expand beekeeping. In all provinces including the northern regions, the FATA and AJK there is honeybee flora present in large areas. Northern areas, FATA and AJK could sustain over 1000,000 Apis mellifera colonies. Aside from this 160,000 hectare of mangroves in the coastal area, there is also another possible honey source to explore.

Moreover, four honeybee species exist in Pakistan, three of which are indigenous (Apis dorsataApis florae and Apis cerana) while Apis mellifera is occidental introduced from Russia and Australia in 1979. In early summer, about the longest day, a honeybee colony reaches its most populated. Hive is made up of three different types of bee – the queen, the worker bees and the drones. Usually, between 40,000 to 60,000 worker bees (sterile females) and a hundred drones, the only males in the colony, and one Queen— the only reproductive animal in the colony. A queen can be 3-4 years old but will usually be replaced after 2 years by the beekeeper and can lay as many as 2000 eggs per day. A worker bee lives a mere six weeks in summer, while the life expectancy of a drone goes up to several months.

There are multiple stages in the life of worker bee which are obligatory for the survival of the colony and hive. This process is genetically fixed, the changes are conveyed within the life cycle through chemical stimuli. The worker bee starts life with the cleaning phase in a colony, it develops wax glands and become a wax producer and involved in the production of honeycomb. Then, it becomes nurse bee and looks after the brood (embryos/egg, larva and pupa stages of colony life cycle). After the nursing stage, the worker is a protector of the colony and defends the colony vigorously. During the last period of its life, it becomes forager and collects pollen and nectar for brood. The Forager bees can be categorized into two categories: Scout bees that are in search of the best food opportunity, as well as reticent bees that wait in the hives until the scout bees return and by dancing, provide them with food source knowledge.

Honey bees are prepared for the identification of light, color shape, and odor. This group of skills ensures high consistency in foraging; bees are used to select the flowers to visit, choose flowers that have the best food. This training helps bees to find nectar effectively and also has plant advantages, as the probability of intra-species pollination is enhanced.

The rising global human population is reinforcing the need for commercial crops cultivated under intensive cultivation crops such as tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, strawberries etc. in plastic tunnels hydroponics farms, which stresses the use of such crops pollinators. These pollinators aid to improve the production of fruit, weight, size and other chemical characteristics in order to achieve cost-effective production.

Decline in pollinator species, which is “pollinator crises” causes severe losses to food crops and these species are quite expensive to import and hinder their use for crop pollination. The frightening global loss of the diversity of pollinators will reduce the productivity and economic impact of pollinator-dependent agricultural crops. Loss of key native pollinator species may have negative implications not only for the functionality of the ecosystem but also for crop production.

But stepping-up agricultural practices are threatening pollinator and pollinators , habitat loss, landscape degradation and overuse of agrochemicals, together with exotic species and pathogens, are all important drivers to reduce pollinators in the farming world. Moreover, Land-use change and rapid habitat development have been viewed during recent decades as important drivers of the decrease in insect pollinator risk in high and rising areas of pollinating demand. The changes in land use will lead to reductions in the number and variety of local flowering plants, including those caused by intensive cultivation, such as shorter mowing intervals. The end effect of these activities is that pollen and nectar are less available. Everyone concerned, governments, officials, scientists, NGOs, farmers, land managers, beekeepers and industry takes seriously the complex interaction of all these factors, which led to a decline in pollinator. It is crucial that industry, farming and all parties concerned work together to determine the best remedies for pollinators decline  and to encourage solutions that provide both insect and agricultural production with beneficial results.

In Pakistan the output of a certain crop has fallen to about 33.4% owing to the lack of pollination and there will be three main categories of plants affected by decline in pollination, primarily growing the production of fruit and vegetables with estimated losses of EUR 50 billion per crop and EUR 39 billion of edible seed crops losses.

Pollinator populations in the Himalayas area of Pakistan are decreasing because farmers and the government are unaware of pollination advantages. In the Azad Kashmir mountain area of Pakistan, apple yield decreases every year because pollinators are absent and farmers substitute apple trees with agricultural crops. Loquat production in Peshawar decreased 64.4% due to lack of honey bee and apple yield are also decreased.

Anthropogenic impacts cause unprecedented rates of declines in wild pollinators. Consequently, improper use of pesticides that are not only stored in fruits and vegetables, but also pollute water and soil then enter into the food chain and reach human blood through this food and water these toxic pesticides  is a major cause of environmental pollution, damage to biodiversity and decline of natural ecosystems and habitats.

Extensive use of pesticides leads to depletion of the population of honey bees and also to a decline in the pollination process. The poisonous chemicals are transmitted through the pollen and nectar in the honey bee hive which can kill the entire colony of honey bees.

Pesticides are commonly used in Pakistan to combat agricultural pests, excessive pesticide use disturbs the ecological system and induces resistance to pests, destroys environmentally friendly insects (Predators, Parasitoids, and Pollinators). Pakistan is South Asia’s second-largest purchaser of chemical substances, with 27% of pesticides used in fruits, vegetables and pesticides rising annually to 25%. The amount of pesticide use consists of 74 percent insecticides, 14 percent weeds killer, 9 percent fungicides, 2 percent acaricides, and 1 percent fumigants in Pakistan, where the majority of pesticides used for cotton (60 percent), rice (7 percent), cereals (4 percent), sugar cane (2 percent) and pesticides used for other crops (27 percent).

Honey bees can be affected by multiple possible exposure pathways with pesticides. Exposure can occur in areas or near treated areas where floral plants are present. Flowers supply nectar and pollen, which are the main source of food for bees, while honeydew from aphids is also known. Healthy bees are also known for their water selection. The water from lakes and streams can be stored and is often supplied as part of good practice by the beekeeper. Some plants can also generate guttation fluid that can often be collected by bees under special circumstances.

All labeling guidelines must be followed strictly with respect to the use of chemical crop defense items. Furthermore, the environment and the timing and correct form of use have to be taken into consideration during a planned operation. The first criterion for best management practices that are beneficial for pollinators should be integrated pest management (IPM). It involves an assessment of rates of pest infestation in a crop to measure effective control steps and the use of treatments that are non-chemical so that they provide sufficient protection at economic costs.

A strong contact with local beekeepers can also help the pollinators. It doesn’t take much of time for beekeepers to be told one or two days prior to treatment, for example, so they can take the appropriate precautions for colonies if they choose, to handle and move their beehives elsewhere.

Different scientists describe the importance of specific crop pollination in the presence of

Pesticides must be biologically active against targeted pest in order to serve the function of plant defense. As it is possible to reveal non-target species (i.e. non-pest-specified species), a systematic legislative body would be formed to determine the safety of non-target organisms of plant protection products. Only when “… has no undesirable acute and chronic effects in colonial survival and development, taking into account impacts on honey bee larvae and honey bee behavior” There is a need for risk reduction measures where risks that are relevant to particular exposure situations are quantified in the risk evaluation process and when the risk reaches a critical level. The labeling of any drug sets the implementation of risk reduction measures and is compulsory for pesticide consumers.

A challenge to the production of nuts, berries, vegetables and seeds in Pakistan currently threatens to reduce honey bee population for the farm pollination. Various factors that cause honey bee colonies to decline, including climate change, insect predation, air pollution, eco semiotics collapse, bee microbiome alterations, electromagnetic radiation, exposure to initial life stress, nano materials  and biochemical pesticides, disease and parasites around honey bees.

The population of honeybees is declining at an alarming rate worldwide and threatens global food security, as one-third of agricultural production depends mainly on the pollination of honeybees.

There are many reasons for lower honey bee production in Pakistan including climate change, untrained beekeepers and excessive use of pesticides has severely affected the colonies of honey bees and the annual apiarist loss of 5661 MT honey which is equivalent to a loss of 9.91 million rupees. In the Swat Valley, chemical products often decrease up to 75% of Wild Honey and are no longer readily available on the market. Farmers keep honeybees with their agricultural crops, but pesticides are the biggest obstacle in beekeeping and the bulky application of pesticides often predicted 90 percent deaths of honey bees every day. Honey production in Pakistan has declined by up to 40% due to significant changes in (habitat, biodiversity) and widespread use of pesticides in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region contributes to a decrease in the population of honey bees.

The deficit in edible oilseed crops in Pakistan is costing $55 billion and only 47 percent of this is due to the low and inadequate pollinating population density per unit of area in toria and sarsoon oilseed crops.

 

Honey from the plant of Kalongi and berry trees is best but in the Chakwal, Charak, Mainwali, Attock regions the ber trees are cut down pathetically, and this represents a very inconvenient signal to the industry. The beekeeping industry is confronted by a range of problems. The cutting of berry tree continues and the honey company would be seriously affected if it were not stopped.

The active role of forestry and agriculture departments must be emphasized in particular in this relation.

Since pollinators are crucial in food production, reductions in pollination services may create scenarios for shortages or low food diversity.

 

Historically, Pakistani agricultural environments have widened the suitable pollinator habitats.

Pakistan’s growth in agriculture has provided a patchwork of diverse and multifunctional ecosystems, offering a range of sources of pollen and open areas, including meadows and field borders, where wildflowers and other non-crop vegetation flourish. There is also plenty of housing, breeding areas and feeding opportunities in cultural ecosystems. Many human activities influenced modern dominance and distribution of pollinators.

 

The introduction of pollinators-friendly practices such as minimizing the use of synthetic inputs or preserving and sustaining semi-natural ecosystems on farms and landscapes would have two benefits to encourage the conservation of biodiversity and to increase productivity and profitability for local farmers.

 

Many commercial insecticide and fungicide companies claimed that their products are harmless or just slightly toxic to honey bees but that pesticides are harmful to bees and other pollinators when used in flowering crops so we ought to educate farmers regarding the application of pesticides through agriculture trainings, media, and agriculture extension services. Furthermore, government should take serious action against pesticides companies concerning the wrong advertisement for their products.

 

Risk reduction strategies are simple to enforce if risk factors are clearly defined and linked directly to a particular activity. When exposure depends on occasional events not triggered by a single intervention, intervention is less easy.

 

Farmers should use environmentally friendly pesticides (derived from plant extracts, etc.) such as nicotine, quassin, rotenone, ryan, tephorosia, pyrethrins, veratrine, and anabasins that have less harmful effects on honey bee. Farmers must apply integrated pest management practices like physical, biological, molecular, cultural control  in their area of agriculture to control pests, and not only rely on chemical control measures.

 

There are certain applications methods to adopt to avoid the danger of pesticide application. Firstly, to limit the use of pesticides to the evening in order to avoid the honeybee flight season, and to stop the spraying of crops as flowers bloom. Secondly, limiting plant safety products ‘application volume. Thirdly, usage of the techniques to minimize drift to prevent spray drift being collected in neighboring blooming areas (e.g., adjacent to flowering crops). Last but not least, removing flowering weeds from cropped areas before application.

 

Risk mitigation measures on product labels are described in order to enlighten the farmer to use the product appropriately; it is mandatory to adhere to product label specifications. Incident analysis reveals that the key cause of harm to honey bees from pesticides is a failure to follow the instruction. These records indicate that bee killings are typically performed in known and situated areas and for a strictly defined duration.

 

Farmers routinely supplement managed pollinators such as European honeybee with the objective of meeting the demand for pollination in the absence of native bumblebees and other wild pollinators that provide effective, sustainable crop pollination services.

 

While many apiarists migrate during the Brassica season to Gujar Khan and Chakwal in the Punjab province, farmers usually do not want to cooperate with beekeepers. The explanation is that farmers believe that bees deprive flowers since they have a local misconception about the harmful effects of bees, of valuable products (nectar and pollen). In view of the above-mentioned situation, there is a need to conduct a systematic analysis of canola and other crops -attracted local pollinators in the Pothwar area Gujar Khan, Chakwal of Punjab, Pakistan, and then compare them with managed European honey bee and deliver scientific information to farmers regarding the beneficial aspects of crop pollination and role of native and managed insect pollinators in crop pollination. This will help guide the farmer’s attitude towards cooperation with the apiculturists.

 

With the initiative of PARC organic honey from Margalla hills in Pakistan is produced. For allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, this delicious Margalla honey brand is successful and Apis mellifera hives have increased by 0. 45 million in Pakistan, AJK and tribal regions and the beekeeping industry has achieved prominence in Pakistan. The total honey production of honeybees is up to 25-28 kg per hive, by transferring advanced beekeeping technology. Under optimum pollination conditions, there ought to as many pollinators as mandatory to meet the many and diverse pollination services required by both farmers ‘crops and the natural world.

Bee’s pollination assists farmers in crop production and also aid in ecosystem worldwide
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