Abstract:

Pakistan is a country with unique ethnic diversity. Ethnicity has become more powerful phenomena as Pakistan is getting older spirit of nationalism is somehow masked by ethnicism. This paper is built on the concept of ethnicity, nationalism, language, territory, cast, conflict and unity. Economic resources should be judiciously distributed among different ethnic identities. Political system should have capability to articulate social capital on the proper place according to their intellectual level. Political system should initiate various economic, social and political measures to curb ethnic conflict.

Ethnic groups of Pakistan
Rabia Chachar
Rabia Chachar

Ethnic Groups of Pakistan

Keywords: Ethnicity, Nationalism, Conflict, Unity, Language, Territory, Cast, Imbalance society, Culture, Religion, Economy

Subscribe Our Official Youtube Channel For Video Blogs and Video Articles (Click Here)

Abstract:

Pakistan is a country with unique ethnic diversity. Ethnicity has become more powerful phenomena as Pakistan is getting older spirit of nationalism is somehow masked by ethnicism. This paper is built on the concept of ethnicity, nationalism, language, territory, cast, conflict and unity. Economic resources should be judiciously distributed among different ethnic identities. Political system should have capability to articulate social capital on the proper place according to their intellectual level. Political system should initiate various economic, social and political measures to curb ethnic conflict.

Introduction:

Ethnicity and nationalism these are two different entities and somehow contradicting term. These two terms directly affect the state empowerment. By looking into history of world we come to know that in countries where people are more attached with ethnic group rather than whole country, they become weak as whole nation and are at higher risk of being separated. After the country building endeavours of Bismarck and Garibaldi prevailing in Europe during the nineteenth century, the European states were mostly viewed as mono-national states 3, where the impact of any sub-national ethnic gathering was generally dismissed. After the finish of Second World War, with various worldwide and multi-ethnic characters got freedom. By and large ethnic statement has accepted fierce structures. Since the finish of Cold War and the disintegration of Soviet Union, different radiating powers dependent on ethnicity, regionalism, sectarianism, and so forth have showed themselves as a substitute, for belief system-based style of legislative issues. Ethnicity specifically has jumped up as a most articulated political marvel in post socialist world. South Asian area is likewise no special case in such manner. In created nations individuals believing are more extensive and they are not enjoyed radicalism of certain gathering. While in some created and creating nations absence of patriotism is watched. Individuals separate into a few social gatherings and their negative musings about others keep them far separated from solidarity. Such countries face many issues are easy to be divided by enemies. British rules the large part of world and many countries come under them. When it invades them, they were weak but the spirit of nationalism was at its peak in 19th century and became dominant against British who invaded the 90% of the countries around the globe. But rise of nationalism in these countries led them to get freedom from Britain dominance and this caused the decline of British Empire around the globe. Canada on July 1, 1867 also became self-governing entity within British Empire. So, in this way British Empire became constrained within England only. We can also interpret that the countries within British Empire were different from one another and this difference rise their nationalism in the people of one country. There are some factors which unite the nation even if they are divided into several groups. British Empire lacked such factors and it failed to connect different countries as a single nation which lead into a collapse and the transfer of Honk Kong to China in 1997 lead to the end of British Empire. In India, there are plenty of ethnic groups. Many are living peacefully but some are more indulged in their ethnic identity and want freedom. They have no unity with other groups and they are more contributed towards their ethnic interest rather than national one. These include Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Tripura. Khalistan Tehreek is a recent one which created hype in the India. When state fails to provide necessities of life equally in all parts of the country then ethnicism is elevated and chaos is created.

“An ethnic gathering is a self-saw incorporation the individuals who hold in like manner a lot of customs not shared by others with when they are in contact. Such customs normally incorporate folic, strict conviction and practices, language, a feeling of authentic congruity and basic family line or spot of cause”.

“A social gathering or class of populace that in a bigger society is separate and bound together by normal ties of race, language, nationality or culture. As a general case, at the centre of ethnic distinguishing proof are what have been named as early stage affinities and connections got from the spot of birth, family relationship, religion, language, and social practices that come normal to a person to join himself to others from a similar foundation. These connections stay in the oblivious and can be revived by fitting boosts”.

Since 1947, the general public and territory of Pakistan has been trapped in the whirlpool of different cross cutting social-political fiber. The nation is loaded with diverse issues of pivotal and complicated nature however ethnicity has risen as the most critical and sensitive issue. The difficulty before Pakistan has been to make a national character out of assorted territorial and semantic loyalties Ideology was viewed as the appropriate mixture for the functional form of Pakistan, however thoughts were baffled when the socio-provincial phonetic and racial real factors started surfacing and ideological authority was being disintegrated. In this manner, ethnic characters rose in 1948.

There are various factors which have been assuming a fundamental job in producing all the more clashing circumstance in the nation, for example, ethnic clash on strict ground, ethnic clash based on language, ethnic clash based on territoriality and ethnic clash based on standing.

Ethnicity and Nationalism:

Ethnicity is defined as the phenomenon of being in the social group which have distinguished identity based on culture, language, common ancestors, clothing, food, music, art, history and religion. It connects the people of the same race but also causes social cohesion and social conflict.

Nationalism is defined as a political, social and economic system that promotes the interests of a nation and this phenomenon enables them to gain and maintain self-governance or full sovereignty over the group’s homeland. Nationalism connects the whole nation. It works for collective interests of a whole nation not for some specific group. It is more vital and ethical tool towards country’s progress.

Ethnic groups of Pakistan

Ethnicity as Negotiating Identity:

Although ethnic hype weakens the roots of the country but we can’t deny its importance. It gives identity to the individual. Like we have classified living things into different class so that we can recognize them humans also have some striking qualities different than others then in order to differentiate them we have to classify them as ethnic groups. We have our own identity which is characterized by name, family, creed, cast and religion. Ethnic identity is necessary for our social status. It gives us the background of particular person. It is a good thing but when things are beyond control definitely, they cause harm.

Negative Impact of Ethnicity on Nationalism:

Ethnicity when makes serious and overstated adherence one’s qualities inside a gathering it causes ethnocentrism. As indicated by ethnocentrism is a condition under which a specific clan considers itself to be the focal point of the universe, which is the focal rotate or the boss around which everything turns. This thing is disturbing one on the off chance that it occurs in a specific gathering they will look down others and battles with them. This condition influences patriotism and causes prevention in national development and improvement. Such aims danger concordance of the general public and a feeling of patriotism and energy is influenced. Such disparity inside society gives a perfect opportunity to its adversaries to meddle them. Bengal and East Pakistan got isolated because of these issues. Their solidarity and patriotism were feeble and India got the perfect possibility and further blow the debates. This division is the aftereffect of deficiencies of the two players. On the off chance that there were solid solidarity and patriotism soul, it wouldn’t be occurred. Outrageous ethnocentrism enjoy into common wars. At the point when individuals are isolated into ethnic gatherings their outrageous assessments, clashes and questions leads towards war. Also, country no longer stay unblemished.

Ethnic groups:

There are numerous ethnic gatherings in nation: The significant ethnic gatherings of Pakistan incorporate Muslim Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Paharis, Hindkowans, Chitralis and other littler gatherings. Littler ethnic gatherings found all through the country incorporate Kashmiris, Kalash, Siddi, Burusho, Wakhis, Khowar, Hazara, Shina, Kalyu Baltis and Jatts.

Pakistan’s statistics does exclude the 1.7 million naturalized evacuees from Afghanistan for the most part found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), with critical populaces in the urban areas of Karachi and Quetta. A large portion of these Afghan displaced people were conceived in Pakistan inside the most recent 30 years and are ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Baloch and Turkmen.

Ethnicity as Negotiating Identity:
Although ethnic hype weakens the roots of the country but we can’t deny its importance. It gives identity to the individual. Like we have classified living things into different class so that we can recognize them humans also have some striking qualities different than others then in order to differentiate them we have to classify them as ethnic groups. We have our own identity which is characterized by name, family, creed, cast and religion. Ethnic identity is necessary for our social status. It gives us the background of particular person. It is a good thing but when things are beyond control definitely, they cause harm.
Negative Impact of Ethnicity on Nationalism:
Ethnicity when makes serious and overstated adherence one's qualities inside a gathering it causes ethnocentrism. As indicated by ethnocentrism is a condition under which a specific clan considers itself to be the focal point of the universe, which is the focal rotate or the boss around which everything turns. This thing is disturbing one on the off chance that it occurs in a specific gathering they will look down others and battles with them. This condition influences patriotism and causes prevention in national development and improvement. Such aims danger concordance of the general public and a feeling of patriotism and energy is influenced. Such disparity inside society gives a perfect opportunity to its adversaries to meddle them. Bengal and East Pakistan got isolated because of these issues. Their solidarity and patriotism were feeble and India got the perfect possibility and further blow the debates. This division is the aftereffect of deficiencies of the two players. On the off chance that there were solid solidarity and patriotism soul, it wouldn't be occurred. Outrageous ethnocentrism enjoy into common wars. At the point when individuals are isolated into ethnic gatherings their outrageous assessments, clashes and questions leads towards war. Also, country no longer stay unblemished.
Ethnic groups:
There are numerous ethnic gatherings in nation: The significant ethnic gatherings of Pakistan incorporate Muslim Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Paharis, Hindkowans, Chitralis and other littler gatherings. Littler ethnic gatherings found all through the country incorporate Kashmiris, Kalash, Siddi, Burusho, Wakhis, Khowar, Hazara, Shina, Kalyu Baltis and Jatts. 
Pakistan's statistics does exclude the 1.7 million naturalized evacuees from Afghanistan for the most part found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), with critical populaces in the urban areas of Karachi and Quetta. A large portion of these Afghan displaced people were conceived in Pakistan inside the most recent 30 years and are ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Baloch and Turkmen.

Ethnic group of Punjab:

The name Punjab is xenonym / exonym and the word Punjab is first time mentioned in the writing of Ibne batuta who visited the Punjab in 14th century. In Punjab we saw the reflection of many other cultures and languages. Actually, Punjab has adopted or absorb somethings of Greece, Persia, china and Tibet etc. Punjabi folklore more commonly its folk songs represents the auto biography of its people. These folklores include heer ranjha, mirza sahiba, sohni mahinwal, sassi pannun and yusuf and zulaikha etc. Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabi include a mixture of indo Aryan and indo Scythian. With the advent of Islam settler from Turkistan, Afghanistan and Kashmir have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. In Punjab, the Punjabi language is spoken most widely. It is ranked as the 10th most widely spoken language. Festivals celebrated in Punjab include eid ul fitr, eid ul adha, eid milad un nabi, tazia, alam, basant. People wear suthan suit, kurta, multani kurta, Punjabi phulkari kurta, Punjabi bandhani kurta, mukisari kurta, salwar suit, potohari suit, chola, chogha and Punjabi ghagra etc. Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi people in Punjab. Common Punjabi folkdance include bhangra, jhumar, mirza, sialkoti, jugni, dhamal, dankar and khichdan etc. kabaddi is the common game of Punjabi tradition.in food they eat sarsoon saag, daal chawal, butter chicken, dhaba daal, kari chawal and pakora, masala channa, tandoori chicken, shami kabab, chole bature, biryani, aloo paratha etc.

Ethnic group of Baloch:

They are distinct because of their particular culture. Be that as it may, shockingly they include some difficult issues inside Pakistan and India is making disarray to isolate Pakistan. Their soul of patriotism is frail.

Baloch culture is found at for the most part in desert and uneven regions of Baluchistan. Balochi individuals are from the precursors of Hazrat Ameer Hamza the prophet’s PBUH uncle. In ninth century, Baloch individuals were living in the middle of the zone of kemau, Khorasan, sistan and makran which is currently called eastern Iran. At that point they relocated towards Baluchistan of Pakistan. Baloch individuals has the principle language Balochi and is spoken in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Oman. Balochi culture is loaded with craftsmanship and art. Narrating is exceptionally regarded in Baloch culture. In Baluchistan men wear trademark shalwar qameez and ladies wear shalwar qameez with long shirts having pocket in focus and weaving alongside long chaddar covering their body. They have extraordinary method of masterminding relationships. For the most part they orchestrate the relations of their kids in adolescence and relationships are done in adolescent. Love marriage proportion is low. They have the custom of taking valve. It is the cash given by man of the hour to the lady of the hour’s family. They commend strict and social celebrations including eid ul fitr and eid ul azha, sibi in which they show their way of life and social things. Balochi culture is improving with music, melodies, verse. Their celebrated wedding tune is nazenk and salonk. Their instruments are for the most part woodwind, tambooro and soroz. Their people move is known as a dochaap. Their preferred dish is sijji. Balochi individuals have the games which are chauk and ji, horse riding, shooting and chasing and so on. Balochi individuals are likewise acclaimed for their valiance.

                           When they fight never give up. Never seen anyone like ballots.

                            In wars they never return home without victory.

                           (Col William Carpenter Lambect)

Ethnic group of Sindhi:

They have distinct traits and personality. Their way of speaking is somewhat different. This ethnic group are very welcoming towards their own members.

Their culture roots in indus valley civilization. Sindhi women wear the shalwar qameez, sari and men wear shalwar qameez along with ajrak shawl and sindhi topi. During medieval period and prior to Mughal rule the customs worn by the sindhi people resembled that of Iraq and neighbouring countries. Traditional dress of Sindh includes lengha choli, ghagra with lose fitting choli in tharparkar, kancera etc. food pattern includes phulka and rice accompanied by two dishes one gravy and one dry, sai bhaji chawal, koki, seviyan, sindhi biryani, sindhi curry, sabu dal chawal. In drinks they take thadal, khirni, sherbet, falooda and lassi. Their festivals include eid ul fitr and azha. Folk dance of bhagat is one of the oldest cultures of Sindh in the subcontinent.

 Ethnic group of Pashtuns:

Pashtuns also have distinct values. Their appearance and language make them different entities. They have their own ethnic identity. Some Pashtuns don’t have patriotic feelings for Pakistan due to concern towards bacha khan campaign. Some people belonging near FATA territory have hatred towards Pakistani institution like army due to some reason.

Pashtun lives in the Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province of Pakistan. Language of Pashtuns is basically Pashto. While each and every area has slightly different Pashtu from one another. Male wears khet partug and perahan wa turban. On head they wear kufi, peshawari cap or karakul hat. In shoes they wear chaplay or thick leather shoes. Female wears kamiz and solid coloured trousers. In fancy dressing gold thread and beads are used, silk fabrics and velvet clothes. They also wear handwork embroided shawls. They wear lose fitting clothes and silver jewelery. Pakhtun people have also unique festivals which are famous all over the world. Horse and cattle show festival, sharu festival, potghal, buzkashi festivals are common. They also have special dances and music including klasik, ghazals using rubab or sitar, tabla and most famous folk song traditions. Dances include attan dance, kattak dance, mahsud dance and waziri dance. Food pattern includes healthy food including kalbi pulao, chapli kabab, shinwari tikka, shorwa, londei, masten, aushak. In chapati they eat naan and doday. They also have a special drink known as shomleh.

 Ethnic group of Gilgit:

Gilgit is located in the north eastern part of Pakistan. It is located in the valley Gilgit River and Hunza River. It is the major tourist destination in the northern Pakistan. Many army officers are from gilgit. This is a disputed region. India claims this region to be her. Its population is 2 lacs. They also speak shina, brushaski, wakhi, khowar, chitrali and Balti. Cultural festivals include jashn e baharan, shandoor polo festival, babusar polo festival and harvest time festival. For music they use instrument dadang, damal, surnai, sitar, gabi, rabab and duff. In Baltistan region khiling boo chang, porgho too instruments are used. Types of music includes alghani, ajoli, souse and dani. Dances include old man dance, sword dance and cow boy dance. They wear characteristic clothes which show their rich traditions.

Ethnic Group By Regions of Pakistan

Interaction between ethnic groups:

In many cities of country, their interaction with each other because they build their economy and their background. The Quaide-e-Azam University in Islamabad (QAU) represent the whole Pakistan in which all the ethnic groups are studying according their cotta’s, so also called the mini-Pakistan. In each department of university diversity od students and they behave their attitude with each other peacefully but in many forums the conflict happens.

Unity is important factor which ensures peace in society. Such as against the India all the ethnic groups become together and show the unity. The unity is become first priority with group of ethnic on the basis of nationalism.

 Nationalism:

Spirit of nationalism is very important creating enthusiasm and healthy enthusiasm. Some factors join nation. If people really respect these factors good environment is achieved. Urdu is our national language. It connects people of the whole provinces. It minimizes differences and tells us that we are equal. Almost whole of the population of Pakistan is Muslim so it is also a contributing factor.

Stereotype Thinking:

It is a stereotype thinking built in many people that we are safe in our own boundaries and others are hostile. They are not good. They can harm us. We are superior and others are just following wrong things. Different ethnic groups have different traditions which make them different. Such traditions may appear weird to others but it is not right to hate others just for this. Traditions and cultures should be more respected. This thinking that every outsider are hostile create a gap in the society and nationalism is affected.

 Lack of Understanding and Communication:

When we communicate with other people, we better understand them. It is not necessary that our first impression is the last one. We keep away from others just on the basis of ethnicity. A boundary is created which hinders flow. People are constrained within their own region. Harmony and affection are lost in such cases.

 

Political and Geographical Factors:

There are political and geographical factors which also affects student mind. Unfortunately, dominant political parties are different in different provinces. Students show concern to their ones. This deviation also creates hate for others. For example, centralized government is formed by the bigger contribution of the Punjab province. As government fails to serve whole country equally so other ethnic groups start feeling hate for people of Punjab who are responsible electing them. So political aberration is converted towards national aberration.

Diversity in Culture:

In Pakistan whole culture is not uniform. People of the different groups have their specific cultures which might seems to be orthodox or foolish to others. If there is no culture but habits which are not ethical other develops hate towards whole people. In Baluchistan women are more constrained under society norms and values. Other groups clearly criticize it. It also creates clash. Punjabis are often criticized by using abusive language in their talk. People from under developed regions also criticize modernism in women which comes from developed regions. Such differences refrain them from having national spirit. We are liberal and orthodox at the same time.

Conflict of Ethnic groups:

Ethnic clashes have been a key component since the beginning of the cutting-edge country state framework. Pakistan’s history is likewise observer to a few ethnicity-based clashes, one of which additionally prompted the dissection of the nation in 1971.

Roughly, 80% of states are multiethnic, implying that no ethnic gathering commands the general public. Ethnic clash has been one of the world’s most normal wellsprings of fighting, uncertainty, and death toll. As indicated by the Minorities at Risk database, 121 ethnic clashes happened somewhere in the range of 1945 and 2003. Some 40% of contentions began after 1990. Since 1955, ethnic clashes have murdered between 13 million and 20 million regular folks a notwithstanding this brought about 14 million globally perceived evacuees and around 17 million inside dislodged people. Brutal ethnic clashes are caused fundamentally by social and political frameworks that lead to disparity and complaints and don’t offer gatherings for the serene articulation of contrasts. Ethnic personality is the fundamental reason for clashes. In ethnic clashes the objectives of at any rate one gathering are characterized in ethnic terms, and the contention, its causes, and potential cures are seen along ethnic lines. The contention occurs on numerous thing on Religion, cast, language, region, and so forth.

Conflict on territory:

Territoriality has been another prevailing reason for planting seeds of clashing circumstance among various ethnic gatherings of various districts of Pakistan. Issues like conveyance of financial assets through NFC (National Finance Commission), water-sharing issue among regions and predominant situation of one ethnic gathering at the force structure made a feeling of estrangement among denied ethnic personalities. The essential structure of Pakistan is that of an organization including unifying units (called territories). Following 9 years the constitution of 1956 was encircled. The 1956 constitution had 3 arrangements of forces, for example, bureaucratic, commonplace and simultaneous the 1962 constitution accommodated a presidential type of government. The commonplace governors played out their capacities as per the desires for focal decision authority and made a feeling of distance among the individuals of the two wings. Not well arranged financial and political methodologies followed by the focal decision tip top held immature to various ethnic characters. The constitution of 1973 had a government and simultaneous rundown leaving the residuary forces to regions. Financial assets ought to be apportioned by the squeezing needs of ethnic gatherings of various areas. Ethnic gatherings collide when they are denied from fundamental necessities of life. It happens when a specific gathering gets fruitful to have authority in charge of the undertakings and plans arrangements to the greatest advantage of their own particular gathering by overlooking other ethnic gatherings.

Conflict on cast:

Cast – based clashes as a rule can be seen during the decisions. Position framework commands provincial governmental issues as well as the legislative issues of urban zones. Discretionary procedure is one of the significant factors that can contribute in deciding the job of various standings bunches in legislative issues. In the field aggregate tribe casting a ballot hugy affects political race result. During the race’s endeavors are made to add fuel to fire of ethnic clashes. Prominent individuals from various ethnic gatherings are killed so as to undermine the political decision process.

In Pakistan ideological groups are vehicle of the positions to get power. Ideological groups issue party passes to those up-and-comers who have a place with predominant rank. In the entirety of Pakistan’s national decisions, it very well may be seen that standing framework has been viably domineering in provincial zones as well as in urban focuses as well. Individuals of a particular station make their choice to the competitor who is from their particular rank without breaking down the declaration of relative up-and-comer. Position framework is one of the significant sources to conceive an offspring strain among various fragments of society.

Conflict on language:

The legislative issues of Pakistan are essentially the governmental issues of phonetic gatherings. Pakistan is a multilingual state, where the Pashtuns, Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi, Mohajir and Siraiki personalities are communicated through Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi, Urdu and Siraiki Languages. It is relevant to make reference to here that ethnic personalities of Pakistan embraced language factor as integral asset for declaring their capacity and propelled language developments for deciding their character. The contention happened in 1971 on Bengalis language. Presently many clashes happened in nation on language premise, for example, the Sindhi’s informed that the national language will be Sindhi yet other ethnic gathering are not tolerating.

Conflict on religion:

In nation the impossible to miss conditions, the contrasts among Shia and Sunni (Shia and Sunni have contrasts over the presentation of various customs of Islam) block any chance of the acknowledgment by the whole country of a really strict state with a solitary strict belief system. In fact more the state manages the lives of the individuals in strict issue to suit its own prerequisite; the more are the Muslims strict minorities liable to disdain and oppose this move (Zia’s Islamic changes made clashing circumstance among Shia and Sunni factions). Indeed, even among the Sunni Blocs, sharp contrasts exist in strict convictions and practices. Sub-alliances the most unmistakable of these being the Brelavi and Deobandi. These strict gatherings would prefer not to play out their strict practices at same spot under same imam. At whatever point the endeavors have been made to bring them near one another by the state or by strict Zealots, genuine difficulty has come about. For safeguarding their own particular individual interests’ rulers drove diverse strict gatherings into war of sectarianism. Indeed, even the Pashtun people group, the Islamic occasions, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are not performed on same day inside not many years.

Conclusion:

The diversity of ethnic groups play role in country and also in political system on the basis po culture, territory, language, religion, cast, etc. the social groups have different on food, clothing, music art, history and common ancestor. The conflict happens between the ethnic groups on their demands and on cast, behavior, imbalance society, religion, etc. They show unity against the India, terrorism that war in country, and show unity on international forum and represent their country. The ethnic groups play role on economic level to increase the GDP and also in import and export products.

%d bloggers like this: