ESTIMATION OF FOOD WASTAGE IN CAPITAL CITY OF PAKISTAN
Food security is a burning issue in the world and food wastage is one of the determinant of food security as more food wastage leading to more food insecurity. Therefore, to reduce food insecurity issue it is necessary to reduce food wastage. All around the world 1.3 billion ton food is wasted. People all around the globe are not aware how to reduce food wastage. This initiative had been taken to highlight the food wastage issue and its impact in Pakistan. In Pakistan, perhaps any work has been done to quantify the food wastage. This study was conducted to quantify the food wastage at restaurants of Islamabad city to create awareness among the citizens of Islamabad about food security. The main objective of this research was to estimate food wastage in quantitative terms at restaurant marriage halls in Islamabad city. Furthermore the study identifies key socio economic factors responsible for such behaviors (food wastage). For this purpose 50 restaurants and 50 marriage halls were selected through convenience sampling A multiple regression model was run to quantify the food wastage. Total sale of food, food serve per person had positive impact on food wastage while owner’s education and owner’s awareness had negative impact on food wastage. According to the restaurant management results; overall fit of the model was R2= 60%. In marriage halls, marriage attending on daily basis had positive impact on food wastage. Government should ban all the all the buffet style restaurants as they are the big source of food waste.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
A Chinese axiom that was invented over 3000 year ago states min yi shi wei tian, meaning “food is a basic requirement of man’. The food which is unnecessary, surplus or uneaten is known as food waste or food loss. Food loss and food waste happened due to the number of reasons and it occurs at the phases of processing, production, consumption and retailing. Now a day’s food wastage is an important concern for the world. Food waste is turning out to be more and more major worldwide issue. Ironically, so is worldwide hunger. Food waste is part of unrefined or cooked food materials and food loss also occurs during, earlier or later meal in the household and food surplus also occurs in the course of developing, distribution retail and food service activities (European Commission, 2010).
About 35% of the all food produced by the human which is suitable for eating is wasted or either lost from the supply per year, or about 1.3 billion metric tons (mt) (Gustavsson et al,. 2011). Now a day’s to help sustainably feed a growing human population, it is important to reduce these post-harvest food losses. At this time, countries differ in the quantity of food they have accessible for consumption, per capita, and those developed countries which waste the most because they have greater surpluses of food ahead of the minimum necessities of their populations (Stuart, 2009).
The most important reasons of food wastage are that it is left unused or great amount of food has been cooked or prepared (Water Resources and Action Programme, 2008). However, this is only one section that food is thrown away by consumer of whole food wastage problem. There are different stages in the food supply chain in which food loss occurs. Food loss occurs during food storage, processing, carrying and also in the kitchen of restaurants and homes (Lundqvist et al., 2008). Inside the text, food waste post-harvest is likely to be referred to as ‘food losses’ and ‘spoilage’.
The definitions of food loss and food waste around the world are not general. Food losses may be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative food losses are less nutrient value and unwanted changes to taste, color or quality. Quantitative food losses can be measured by decreased weight or volume. However for margin the problem inside the policy context, some organization has used a wider definition of food. For example, Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Innovation and Economic claimed that food losses concerns with quality and remaining food and flow of food in addition to food loss (Waarts, 2011).
Following definitions of food waste describe its dimensions. The food which is fit for human use but it is rejected, tainted, misplaced or consumed by pests for a moment in food supply chain (FAO, 1981).The food which is considered to nurture humans but rejected (Stuart, 2009).The difference between the value of food needed and food consumed (Smil, 2004). The first two definitions are considered to be most applicable; Even though the second can only be carried if data are accessible that comprises nutritional evaluation of animal feed and food processing by-products.
The study of food loss gives important knowledge for the industry and policy makers because of its importance in increasing the knowledge of the issue, diminish food waste and increase the ability of the farm -to- fork food system and food renewal efforts to support the growing human population.
There are many reasons that why food waste is important? The first reason is very simple that due to the increase in population, we need more food to feed people. The popuation growth will reach to 9.5 billion in 2050, therefore 75% increase in food production is needed (UN,2011). The second reason is more important as the main or high amount of money and other wealth invested during foods whole process to store, produce, transport or something else that is not necessary for the planned function of feeding people (Buzby, 2011). Third reason is that happen of negative externalities problems during the whole production system of food and its force on the society and the surroundings. (Lundqvistet, 2008).
Human growth process is the combination of economic growth and food security of any nation. Food is one of the basic necessities of human being while food security is the essential for welfare of any society as well as it is the reason of survival of society among different nations of the world. Food security has become a serious problem for developing as well as developed nations. But the problem is severe in developing countries as in developing countries specifically Asian countries consumption of per capita calories are not up to mark (Deaton and Dreze, 2009). Increasing food insecurity situation severely affect psychological health of the people (Chilton, 2009).
FAO, (2009) has defined food security as, “Food security exists when all individuals have economic and physical access, appropriate adequate, safe and nourishing food to fulfill their dietary necessities and food preferences for healthy and active life”. This description indicates the four different aspects of food security: availability, access, utilization in addition stability of food. Food availability shows the supply side of food chain while domestic production level, net imports and stock level determined this aspect. Access of food mean the economic and physical access determined by markets, price, income and expenditure level and it is comparatively more important level than previous one. Consumption of food, water or nutritional intake in any form is studied in food utilization. Its indicators are intra-household and food preparation along with diversity of diet. Last aspect of food security deals with the stability of other three aspects. As food security demands the present and future access and availability of food than if we are foo secure at present but have nothing for future usage, we are food insecure (Riely et al., 1991).
Another dimension of food security is the preferences for food that relate to the societal and pious norms. Different people have different priorities for the food. People with same access to food but taking diverse primacies founded on society, religious conviction, standards and sense of taste could show completely diverse stages of food security. The diets should be traditionally and socially suitable and reliable by spiritual and moral standards. This dimension shows that every region has own preferences and people are food secure according to their tastes and priorities (Pinstrup- Anderson, 2009).
Food security can be analyzed both at national and individual level. At national level, food security means that there is no gap between demand and supply of food items. If a country meets the demand of its population either by domestically produced food or by imports, then we can say that country is a food secure country. Food security at household level is more important than national food security. Household food security means that every member of every household has access at all times to a safe and healthy food. Sometimes a country produces sufficient food resources to feed its population then it is nationally food secure country but the households are not able to purchase food to meet their daily requirements. So food security is different on different levels. Most important is the household food security because when every household in a country is food secure then ultimately overall country will be food secure. Food safety at national level is determined in terms of supply and demand marks. Food security at domestic level is calculated through direct investigations of dietetic consumption and food security at the individual level can be examined by anthropometric statistics (Barun et al., 1992).
Present study was conducted with the following objectives
- To estimate the food wastage in restaurants and marriage halls.
- To estimate the food wastage in relation of food security.
- To suggest policy measure for policy makers.
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Osner (1982) studied that it was calculable that roughly one quarter of food created within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was wasted from the time food commodities leave the farm till they’re conferred to the patron on a plate. Osner appearance at the crude energy gap, once and wherever food wastage happens, and discusses ways that of reducing and utilizing waste.
Youngs et al. (1983) examined concerning food waste in two stages. In the first stage nourishment waste was measured by an immediate perception strategy in four inns, two units inside of a downtown area eatery mind boggling and two units inside of people in general cafe of a providing food school. Estimations proceeded for anywhere around 6 and 21 days. Consumable and unappetizing waste ran from 20 to 38% of the vitality estimation of dinners served in the lodgings, 9% in the downtown area eatery unpredictable and 42% in the school cafe. In the second stage absolute sustenance waste was measured in two quarters and in the same downtown area eatery complex by an aberrant system to abstain from impacting working practices. Waste qualities spoke to 31 and 33% of sustenance data on a vitality premise in the lodgings and 3% of nourishment information on a vitality premise in the eatery complex. The obviously high waste qualities in the inns examined are ascribed to their conventional cooking routines utilizing a high extent of natural nourishments and offering broad menus. The low waste qualities in the eatery complex mirrors the verging on aggregate utilization of prepared nourishment things, limited menus, clients paying for every feast at the season of eating and built up organization control strategies.
Nicholls and Nystuen (1993) analyzed that the purpose of this text was to debate the longer term of food waste management. First, the evolution of environmental issues within the U. S. was bestowed. Trends and future analysis topics for foodservice waste management were then mentioned, and also the want for a “metabolic restaurant” was planned by the authors. Finally, the authors contend that foodservice operators and customers should conjointly address the social and client friendly group demand for conservation, preservation, and restoration of ecologically foodservice facilities.
Kamel and Maritenz (1984) studied the food and nutrient availability in households assumed from food purchases during one week in Kuwait. Primary method of data collection was used and a sample of 1134 Kuwaiti and 1444 non-Kuwaiti households was selected by random sample technique. Results showed that food available among NK households was higher as compared to K households with respect to energy and protein. K households which had a large number spent on average a higher proportion of their income on food than NK families. Kuwaiti households purchased more cereals, sugar, sweets and fish than NK households. With increased income purchases of most food products, especially of protein rich products increased in both groups but in K households’ purchases of cereals declined.
Kim et al. (1997) determined the composition of wastes generated in a very continuing-care retirement community and to investigate the results of source-reduction activities and meal delivery system modification on the quantity of waste generated within the capacity. A waste stream analysis was conducted at a similar bureau throughout spring 1994 (period llbaseline), spring 1995 (period 2: supply reduction intervention), and fall 1995 (period 3: service delivery intervention). Weight, volume, and folded volume were determined for food and packaging wastes. Tray service and wait staff service square measure provided to seventy residents in a very health care unit, associated family-style service was a facultative service accessible to a hundred thirty residents within the independent-living units. A mean of 229 meals square measure served per day. Intervention enclosed the implementation of source-reduction activities and a modification in a very service-delivery system in periods two and three, severally. Descriptive statistics were wont to confirm the composition of waste. Analysis of variance and a multiple comparison methodology (least vital difference) were wont to compare mean weight and volume of waste generated in amount one with knowledge collected in periods two and three.
Madrid (1997) analyzed the presence of sustaining rhythms suggested that fish would bolster better amid their favored nourishing stage however dismiss sustenance at some other time. In the present paper, we tried the execution of another gadget for persistently gathering and recognizing uneaten sustenance pellets. The gadget is fundamentally made of two sections. A pellet gatherer set simply under the feeder and a decanter with a sensor joined to the base. M the point when a nourishment pellet was not eaten, it was quickly gathered and exchanged to the decanter, where it was distinguished while dropping by an infrared sensor coupled to a microcomputer. To approve this framework, five gatherings of fifteen ocean bass, Dicentrachus labrax L. were kept up under common conditions and subjected to an everyday bolstering cycle (nourishing rate = 2.5 percent of bod.y weight) comprising of three dinners of one hour length of time each (0800-0900 hour, 1600-1700 hour and 2400-0100 hour). Uneaten pellets together -with interest bolstering action were at the same time recorded. Notwithstanding these test tanks, “regular” interest ‘bolstering rh lams were likewise explore( in five gatherings of ocean bass kept up under a slapped together self-nourishment when submitted to the three supper bolstering cycle, ocean ministration. In the test tanks, bass indicated clear time inclinations for sustaining, since they encouraged generally amid the dismissing nourishment around evening time. These outcomes uncovered the value of this gadget in evaluating nourishment usage and its potential application studies in fisheries, in dietary and Chronological treatments.
John et al. (1999) studied that there was sizable anecdotal proof and a few analysis indicating poor biological process intake and high levels of food wastage in hospitals, there are no studies relating these problems to the occupation system used. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to live food wastage and biological process intake in elite hospital occupation systems. Knowledge were collected from 3 varieties award (elderly, medical and surgical) in four hospitals (nine wards), 2 in London and 2 in Southern England. 3 wards used food fried chiefly within the hospital room, six used cook-chill and cook-freeze dishes bought in prepared ready. 5 of the wards used a bulk system wherever food is transported to the ward and plated, within the others, food is plated within the hospital room then transported to the ward. Food sent to the ward, served to patients, which that remained leftover or left on the service tramcar was weighed for a minimum of twenty four hours in every ward; 966 patient-meal-days. This knowledge enabled food wastage and biological process intake to be calculated. Results indicate that food wastage was lower at the breakfast meal, than the noonday and evening meal, 23.10 per cent, 39,99 per cent and forty two.35 per cent, respectively; feminine wastage was above male, 33.91 per cent and twenty seven.26 per cent, respectively; wastage was higher wherever food was plated in wards instead of within the room, 57.75 percent and 35.28 percent, respectively; and wastage was higher wherever food was purchased-in prepared ready, instead ofprime fried within the hospital room. Biological process intake was calculated for five wards and all told, energy intake was below the recommendations, the very best deficit being fifty eight per cent. Deficiencies were conjointly noted for alternative nutrients.
Smith et al. (2000) examined the basic structure of food insecurity in the developing world. Main emphasis was on two questions: (1) why are they food insecure? And (2) why are the food insecure? For this purpose data from 58 developing countries with high prevalence’s of food insecurity was collected. Main concern of the study was on national food supply and inability of people to access the food due to poverty. The results showed that using child malnutrition as a proxy a little relationship existed between national food availabilities and food insecurities. The countries that showed the highest cruelty of food insecurity were those with high poverty and food surpluses showing that poverty was the most widespread cause of food insecurity in 1990s.
Alaimo et al. (2001) find out the relationship between family salary, food inadequacy and being overweight in US children 2 to7 and 8 to 16 years and to discuss mechanisms that may explain these associations. Secondary method of data collection was used and data was obtained through third national health and nutrition survey. Children were reported as food insecure if families reported that their households were not able to eat enough food. The results indicated that children in families of low salary were more likely to be overweight than families with high income. There were no differences by food deficiency status except that younger food insufficient girls were less likely to be overweight.
Casey et al. (2001) carried out a study in US in 2001. The main purposes of their study were to examine the features of US children living in food lacking households and to compare food and nutrient ingestions, physical laziness and overweight and underweight status of children in food insufficient and food sufficient households. Cross sectional survey was conducted and a sample of 3790 households including 5669 children were collected. The results revealed that 3% of all households with children and 7.5% of low income families with children showed food insufficiency. Demographic and socioeconomic differences were observed between food insufficient and food sufficient households. Children of low income families as compared to high income families consumed fewer calories and carbohydrates but had a higher cholesterol intake. Children in low income families were more overweight, consumed less fruit and watched more television.
Barton et al. (2000) conducted a study in university hospital to investigate the cause of continuing weight-loss in patients. The supply and wastage of food from the hospital was accessed for a period of 28 days on one ward from each selected four specialties. Average food intake per patient was compared with the average food intake per normal individual as prescribed by different food agencies. It was observed that 2000 kcal/day was supplied by hospital management to sufficiently meet the patient’s diet however food wastage @ 40% per day in all specialties caused the low nutritional availability and protein intake in all the patients is far below than the minimum requirement and only met 80% of the recommended. The price estimation of the wasted food was 139, 655 rupees per day in all four specialties. This food wastage led to decrease availability of food ingredients among patients and they are facing the energy and protein deficiencies in their bodies. The study illustrated the reason behind continuous weight-loss among hospitals patients subjected to optimum supply of food. It also highlighted that hospital feeding policies should be reviewed to meet the needs of the sick.
Barton et al. (2002) studied to estimate why patients were losing weight. A hospital in university was observed consisting of (1200 beds) of patients. All eatable provided and discarded in hospital was quantified for 28 days in one parish of each 4 disparate classes. 2000 kcal per day was enough for the dietary need of the patient. Therefore, high rate of wastage was greater than 40 percent due to proteins absorption while all other classes were fewer than 80 percent of mentioned. The amount to bear was £139,655 in these four specialties. More than 40 percent of hospital food was wasted.
Kaiser et al. (2002) conducted a study in America. The intentions of the study was to examine the relationship of food insecurity to nutrition of Mexican- American pre schoolars. Cross sectional survey was conducted. The data was collected from low income Mexican- American households including preschool children of 3 to 6 years. Total sample size was of 211 and convenient random sampling was used for data collection. Statistical analysis include analysis of variance, t test, spearman’s correlation and Mantel Haenszel. Results showed that limited education, lack of English expertise and low income were negatively correlated with food security. Children in food insecure households were less likely to meet food guide pyramid guidelines than other children. No noteworthy differences were found in height and weight of the children by level of food insecurity.
Matheson et al. (2002) carried out a study in Hispania. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between food deficiency, household food supplies, school age children dietary intakes and body mass index. Primary method of data collection was used. A sample of 124 Hispanic, fifth grade children with their mothers were studied as part of a school based obesity prevention program. Data was collected on children weights and heights and 3 24 hour dietary recalls were conducted. Data about household food insecurity and household food supplies was provided by mothers. The results showed that food insecurity was negatively associated with the children BMI’s and also with household food supplies but not with children intakes. Secondary analysis showed that children from the high insecure families had significant decrease in energy consumption and meat consumption. The lower BMI’s in the food insecure children were due to food restrictions.
Anwar and Awan (2002) conducted a study in rural and urban areas of Faisalabad in which they compared the nutritive and growing status of rural and urban school children aged 6 to 12. Primary method of data collection was used. A total of 2042 children (853 males and 1189 females) were considered for being underweight, wasting and stunting. Of male 42.3 % were from urban and 57.7% were from rural areas. Of the females 72.7% were from urban and 27.3% were from rural areas. The data was arranged according to jelliffe’s classification for determination of malnutrition. To test the significance of association between dependent and independent variables chi-square test was used and data was analyzed using SPSS. The results revealed that a total of 36.1% were stunted and 45.3% were underweight and 25.4% were below standard weight for height. Among the urban children 33% were stunted and 32.3% were below the standard for weight. The rural female group was the most affected and malnourished with61.8% stunted and 84% underweight. So it was found that a big difference exists between nutritional status of rural and urban children.
Bhattacharya et al. (2003) carried out a study in US. The main theme of the study was to find out the relationship between nutritional statuses, poverty and food insecurity for household member of various ages. Secondary method of data collection was used and data was obtained through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The number of respondents was 34000 aged two months and older. Most striking result of the study was that while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among pre-school children food security did not provide any additional predictive power for this age group, Among school going children neither poverty nor food insecurity was associated with nutritional outcomes while among adults both food insecurity and poverty were predictive so this was the basic difference between association of food insecurity and nutritional status among children and adults.
Adam et al. (2003) conducted a study in California. The main theme of the study included patterns of food uncertainty among California women and to find out the association between food insecurity and obesity. Secondary method of data collection was used. And data was collected from 1997-1998 California women health survey. Total sample size was 8169 females which were more than 18 years old. The sample was selected randomly and candidates were interviewed by telephone. For the analysis of the results logistic regression model was used to measure the connection between food insecurity and obesity. The results of the study showed that food insecurity without hunger affected 13.9% of the population and food insecurity with hunger, 4.3%. Almost one fifth (18.8%) of the population was obese. Obesity was more prevalent in food insecure (31.0%) than in food secure women (16.2%). Food insecurity without hunger was associated with increased risk of obesity in whites [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36] and others (OR = 1.47). Food insecurity with hunger was associated with increased risk of obesity for Asians, Blacks and Hispanics (OR = 2.81) but not for non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 0.82). Food insecurity was associated with increased likelihood of obesity and risk was greatest in nonwhites.
Park (2004) studied the 1500 victuals hotels in Choson. This study assessed the patron behavior concerning consumption and significance of victuals restaurants attribute to Choson. Information were collected by form from 279 victuals restaurants. 2 styles of client behavior hedonistic and utilitarian were determined in consumption out follow. . The hedonistic behavior; value of eating-out had direct correlation with quick delivery, mood, cleanliness, savor, worker’s behavior, and provisions, the utilitarian worth targeted on honest worth, quick service, and incentives, This study shows the empirical proof displaying that Korean customers a lot of highly favor to choose victuals restaurants more by hedonistic, not utilitarian, ways it which to eat food.
Timmer (2004) briefly studied the association between food safety and economic growth. He gave emphasis on food safety at macro level. The study had shown that rate of economic growth also depends upon trade policy of food items. Rich societies always had little fear of hunger. Rapid economic growth enhance food security. In rich societies food security wass part of net of social securities. The study focused on making rice as economic commodity not political commodity. Government must support rural economies by giving growth oriented policies, macroeconomic stability, generation of new technologies, and by provision of infrastructure to lower transaction cost.
Engstrom and Carlsson (2004) calculable concerning fifth of the food that is daily, consumption was wasted. Individuals leave on the plates is that the biggest loss that percent of the whole amount of eatable that is served. Interviews were conducted in kitchens a pair of in restaurants and a pair of in faculties wherever 250 and 600 pans were employed in restaurants whereas 850-950 in faculties, storage loses, preparation loses, serving loses, leftover and plate waste were measured. On a median 2 hundredth food had been wasted that was delivered to food service establishments. Most of the waste had been calculable at the last step (plate waste) of utilization. Public need additional hygiene and improved eatables that is why losses cannot be reduced. Therefore, handling of food is improved owing to advancement in technology however plate waste is increase.
Shepherd et al. (2005) estimated that there were several studies of what influences shoppers in their selections to buy or consume organic foods, chiefly involved with contemporary organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with folks being positive concerning organic foods however usually not buying them. This discrepancy looks to be explained by the actual fact that buyers don’t think about “organically produced” to be a vital purchase criterion, that organic foods aren’t looked as if it would surpass typical foods relating to style and period (two qualities rated to be of nice importance), and since of the perceived premium costs of organic foods. in 2 Swedish studies, health edges were incontestable to be a lot of powerfully associated with attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental edges. A replacement European Community (EU) project can investigate the influences on each contemporary and processed organic foods and investigate the role of ethical, ethical, and emotive influences on selection across eight EU countries.
Meiselman (2005) studied that the food servers were typically in a very distinctive position to influence what customers opt for, that successively could have an effect on their enjoyment of that food. The aim of this study, therefore, was to gauge the influence of positive and negative comments created by servers on food alternative and acceptance. Customers employing a public university eating house were “assisted” in their food alternative by a server creating either a positive, negative or no statement on the recognition of a particular dish. At the top of tile meal, diners were then asked to rate the acceptableness of the dish chosen employing a nine-point indulgent scale. Results show that solely negative statements created by servers 4.6 times the resources used for soft drinks alone. This analysis suggests the relevance of the idea of less consumption to environmental analysis and for estimating the results of excess food utilization.
Nord et al. (2005) conducted a study in America. The study found that 85% households were food secure. Its means that according to food security definition they all had economic availability to food every time for an active and healthy life. The household other than 85% were food insecure may be during sometimes in whole year. The frequency of food insecurity from 11.2 to 11.9 during 2003-2004. The study found that a food secure household of US spent 31% more as compared to a typical food insecure household. Half of the food insecure people participated in largest federal food assistance programs.
Begum et al. (2005) conducted a study in rural areas of Nowshera village kaka sahib. The main focuses of the study were to find out the food consumption patterns and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on food consumption patterns in rural areas of KPK province. A random sample of 66 households was selected by lottery method which constituted about fifth of the whole population. The data was collected on questionnaires which included socioeconomic characteristics, economic features and food consumption patterns. An ordinary least square method was used to decide the impact of socioeconomic characteristics on food consumption. The results indicated that an average household size of 8.5 persons with literacy rate of 94% spent 55% of total income on food expenditures. The results revealed that wheat flour, milk, rice, sugar, vegetables, tea were positively correlated with the household size but meat, pluses, eggs and fruits were not significantly influenced by it. Similarly household income showed a positive relationship with the food commodities consumed except wheat flour, vegetables and eggs. The study showed that consumption patterns of rural households were different from urban.
Babatunde et al. (2005) conducted a study of rural families in Kwara state of Nigeria. Focus of the study was to observe the socioeconomic characteristics and household food security in those areas. Cross sectional data of 94 households was collected through random sampling technique in three stages. To determine socioeconomic characteristics descriptive analysis was used and to examine the factors affecting household food security econometric analysis was carried out. Results revealed that 36% households were food secure. Logit regression model showed that household which were food secure exceeded suggested calorie intake by 42% while food insecure houses fall short by 38%. Further household income, size, and education were the determinants which affected the household food security.
Racine et al. (2005) conducted a study in three Eastern Caribbean countries. The main aim was to study the affiliation between food anxiety and child well-being indicators. Data was collected through random sample technique. Cross sectional survey was used and total sample size was of 2344 households with children. Multiple logistics regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between food insecurity and child well-being. Results showed that 33% of households were food insecure. Food insecure households included chronically ill parents, divorced parent, a child with a physical incapacity or a child with learning disability. So the food insecure families were burdened mostly by child disability or family system disruption.
Baig et al. (2006) conducted a study in Karachi, Pakistan. The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalent care and feeding practices among children aged 6 to 18 months, to identify any other factors associated with stunting growth in those areas. For this purpose primary method of data collection was used. Data was collected by cross sectional survey between October and December in eight settlements. Total taster of 443 mothers having eligible children were questioned with the help of organized questionnaires. Final examination was carried out through multiple logistic regression on 399 mother-child pairs. Results of the study showed that female children were three times more stunted than male children. Lack of maternal formal schooling a large household size were also associated with stunting. Household which were food insecure were also three times more likely to be stunted than other households.
Pekcan et al. (2006) study the food losses in the households in Turkey during summer 2005. They developed a questionnaire to assess the behavior of household towards use and wastage of food. Data was collected from 500 households and was subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed that mean energy intake levels per person was 2 692.6 ± 58.96 kcals/day whereas the utilization of the energy per unit person was 2 207.9 ± 48.35 kcals/day. Hence the amount of energy lost in the form of food, per person was 481.7 kcal/person, which accounted on average for 9.8% of the daily energy intake per person. However the amount of food discarded per person and per households was 318.8 g and 816.4 g on daily basis. This is huge amount of losses to the food items which if properly managed will help to overcome the hunger problems and food security issues.
Sibrian et al. (2006) described a statistical method for estimation of DEI using the dietary energy consumption (DEC) adjusted for household food wastage. The purpose of the study was to estimate the losses of food across household and institutions so to understand the preferences of food intake so to have the accurate idea of food wastage and food excess. It was founded that for better estimation of food losses and food intake more data is needed. It was also observed that more data will provide the accurate assessment of amount of food supplied and amount of food lost every year. So to have the better estimation of food wastage and proper policy measures. The results suggested it is best model to estimate the food losses but need more primary data as compared to models.
Jensen and Hansen (2007) studied that the analysis given during this article focuses on shopper values in eating house meal experiences from the eating house custom ers’ points of read. supported a group of information, the aim is to judge the customers’ perceived shopper values in eating house meal experiences and to match the results with alternative studies on shopper values and repair quality and with studies of meal experiences A changed grounded theory approach has been followed. The empirical knowledge are supported seven semi-structured interviews of toughened eating house customers in 2 cities in Scandinavian nation. An abstract model illustrates the secret writing method that shows the association between the various classes. The information analysis produces totally different classes of consumer-specific values on 3 levels of integration. Rock bottom level includes twenty nine shopper values that are integrated into thirteen such values. On the best level, 5 price classes of consumer-oriented values are such. These are excellence, harmony, emotional stimulation, acknowledgement, and circumstance price, of that harmony is that the most emphasized price among the eating house customers. This study offers the eating house trade exaggerated insight into shopper values among their actual and potential customers. It additionally lays a foundation for conducting a quantitative study within the future to check the validity of the determined values in client meal experiences.
Weiser et al. (2007) conducted a study in Uganda. The objectives of the study were to realize the link of food insecurity with morbidity and designs of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in an antiretroviral therapy program. The study was longitudinal cohort study. The primary predictor was food insecurity measured by the validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Primary consequences included health-related quality of life measured by the validated Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Physical Health Summary (PHS), incident self-reported opportunistic infections, number of hospitalizations, and missed clinic visits. To estimate model parameters, the method of generalized estimating equations, adjusting for socio demographic and clinical variables was used. The results of the study showed that beginning in May 2007, 458 persons were surveyed for a median of 2.07 years, and 40% were severely food insecure at baseline. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse PHS, opportunistic infections, and increased hospitalizations (results were similar in concurrent and lagged models). Mild/moderate food insecurity was associated with missed clinic visits in concurrent models, whereas in lagged models, severe food insecurity was associated with reduced odds of missed clinic visits.
Khalil (2007) carried out a study on food utilization patterns. The results indicated that utilization of food was necessary for survival of all human being. Everyone needs a sufficient food for a healthy and productive life. Food insecurity related with poverty as about 2 billion people in developing world were poor and they were unable to meet their daily food requirements. The big problem was between demand and supply. Access to quality food and suitable resource to production were difficult to rural population. Policy makers should think and design developmental program for agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. Improvement can be achieved in farming and productive system by using variety of practice like soil fertility, conservation tillage, harvesting and integrated management.
Schmidhuber and Tubiello (2007) conducted a study in which they studied strong effects of climate change on food security. It was studied that among four main pillars of food security i.e., stability, access, utilization and availability only availability was mostly addressed in studies. It was found that there were strong influences of climate change on food security. But it depends upon socio economic development. The bearing of climate change on others aspects of food security were also studied qualitatively that shows negative impacts. Finally strengths and weaknesses of study were also discussed.
Lobel et al. (2008) carried out a study on adaptions and mitigations techniques in climate change for raise of crops to ensure food security. For improving adaption of crops for climate change investment was done. In 12 food insecure areas analysis to identify prior ties for adaptions for crop based on statistical model and for risks of climate for agriculture. Results concluded that 2 regions that were very important for food insecure population South Asia and South African were very poor in adaption against climate change that had negative impact on various crops. But negativity was varied according to crop. So it was recommended that investment should be done on the base of risk attitude.
Cook and Frank (2008) argued that food was vital to prime development and function in children and adults. Food insecurity was a prevalent risk to the growth, health, mental, and behavioral potential of Americans poor and near-poor children. Infants and toddlers in particular were at risk from food insecurity even at the lowest level of severity. Food insecurity was voluntarily measured and rapidly remediable through policy changes, which a country like the United States, unlike many others. The food and distribution resources exist; the only constraint was political will.
Sidhu et al. (2008) conducted a study in Ludhiana district of Punjab. The main theme of the study was to determine the food and nutritional security in the food surplus area. For this purpose primary method of data collection was used. Total sample size of 262 household was obtained 132 urban and 132 rural by multistage random sampling. Questionnaire was used for this purpose. The results showed that food insecurity existed even in food excess areas and low income households were more susceptible to it. The access to food was determined by the level of income and family size and that was the most important factor which influenced food insecurity in food excess area. The study also showed that increase in production was not satisfactory but also access to food security was equally important.
Saha et al. (2008) conducted a study in rural areas of Bangladesh. Focus of the study was to examine the connection between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and small children in rural areas of Bangladesh. Data of 1343 children were collected from their birth to two years of age. Data about the weight and length were collected every month during the first year and quarterly during the second year. Different models were used to estimate the relationship. And results showed that household which were food secure showed better weight and length gain as compared to those who were food insecure. So family food security was a major cause of children progress in rural Bangladesh.
Ahmad (2009) examined the food security situation in Pakistan. He stated that food security is a national as well as a global problem, about eight million people are facing the issue of food scarcity while in Pakistan almost 20-25% people are facing the issue of severe food scarcity. His research is based on secondary data. He said that smuggling of agriculture commodities and import of same commodities have made the situation of food availability, worse, even in agricultural country like Pakistan. He suggests to empower the command and control authorities to prevent smuggling and selling of cheap agri products on high prices.
Farkhanda et al. (2009) conducted a study in slum areas of district Faisalabad. The focus of the study was the extent of food insecurity, role of females in food security. Two areas were selected and primary data was collected through random sample technique. Total sample size was of 100 and both quantitative and qualitative questions were asked. Results were analyzed through chi-square and gamma test. Results of the study showed that most of the respondents showed that they have knowledge about safe and nutritious diet but they did not have resources to eat balanced diet to their families. Most of the families were not satisfied with the quality of their food. Due to low quality of drinking water majority of the respondents were suffered from many diseases. So knowledge about balanced diet was sufficient but resources to obtain a nutritious diet were not adequate in the study area.
Buzby et al. (2009) analyzed updated food loss estimates for vegetables, fresh fruit, poultry, seafood and meat obtained through a competitive grant with the Perishables Group, Inc. The firm studied the shipment data gathered from six large regional and national supermarkets to estimate the amount of food losses in the time period of 2005-2006. Data obtained was subjected to the Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data and results of which showed that the old survey of food losses is quite similar to the food losses obtained in the present survey with a slight increase in the food losses. The results also reported that availability of the most of the food items was enhanced with increase in the supply o the items. The results also showed that the consumption of different food items was increased i.e. 4.2 pounds (2.7%) for fresh vegetables, 4.8 pounds (2.7%) for fresh meat, poultry, and seafood and fresh fruits by 0.7 pounds (0.6%). It was observed that food losses estimate bases on commodity-specific food loss estimates were more accurate as compared the previous estimates.
Hall et al. (2009) studied the amount of energy wastage among the US nation based on the difference in the food supplied to that of food consumed per capita. The amount of food consumed per capita was calculated using a validated mathematical model of metabolism relating body weight to the amount of food eaten. It was observed from the results that US food wastage per capita was increased at an exponential rate from the 1974 to the present. The results showed that about 50% increase in the food losses as was observed in the previous survey of 1974. The food losses were 150 trillion Kcal per year per person or in other words 1400 Kcal per capita per day. It was observed that food losses were about one quarter of the supplied food.
Ahmed and Farooq (2010) described the hunger, poverty alleviation and food insecurity as important aspects of MDG. In south Asia, Pakistan was the country with high population, crop growing was greatest and key region which gives much productivity to its population. In last six decades farming area was enlarged by 40% with in the country but the growing population exerts pressure on cultivated area. They said that there was a dire to understand food security in Pakistan plus how agricultural policies effected food and income how people of rural and urban areas were facing the burden of food insecurity. The major focus of study was to determine the pathways to accomplish food and dietetic safety for its people in Pakistan.
Asogwa and Umeh (2010) conducted a study in Benue state of Nigeria. The focus of the paper was to investigate food security factors among rural households in Nigeria. Primary method of data collection was used and data was collected using random sample technique. Total sample size was of 220. Data was analyzed using lobit regression model. Results indicated that a unit increase in family member working is relayed with maximum fall in family food insecurity among respondents. The study also showed that a unit increase in household member schooling created the maximum rise in household food insecurity among respondents. Larger family size was more food insecure.
Bashir et al. (2010) conducted a study in district Faisalabad of Punjab province. The study concentrated to assess the harshness of food insecurity of rural and peri urban areas and their socioeconomic determinants. Primary data of 300 households was collected through proportionate sampling from 4 selected towns through a questionnaire survey. Food security status was accessed through calorie intake method and socioeconomic characteristics were determined through logistic regression technique. It was concluded that 18% households were food insecure. Rural households were more food secure as compared to peri urban households. Further results showed that livestock assets, education level , no of earners, households income and income in the form of gifts had positive impact on food security but on the other hand age of household, family size and expenditures had negative impact on food security.
Lebersorger and Schneider (2011) analyzed that Food waste had become a more and more mentioned topic in recent years. However, there’s very little authoritative information on refuse quantities and composition and systematic and comparable information area unit missing. Unit waste composition analyses, that area unit usually distributed habitually at regular or irregular intervals, give a chance for getting information concerning refuse at each native and regional levels., The results of previous waste composition studies aren’t extremely comparable owing to the various classifications, definitions and ways used; additionally, •these area unit largely insufficiently delineated and not duplicable by a 3rd party: The aim of this paper is to debate strategy for determinative the proportion of refuse in unit ‘waste composition studies, b analyzing specific issues and potential solutions For that purpose, findings from the literature unit analyzed and therefore the approach and results of a composition analysis of risk waste of a sample distribution (urban, rural area unite) are given. The study suggests that so a to avoid a big loss of knowledge, waste mustn’t be sieved before sorting and packed, refuse ought to be classified into the relevant refuse class alongside its packaging. The case study showed that the general influence of the proportion of food packaging, enclosed within the refuse class that amounted to solely (Victory in Europe) V – E Day didn’t considerably influence the results and might thus be unnoticed.
Kim (2011) studied food wastes with typical America food composition were analyzed to characterize completely different constituents in each particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical 0 demand (COD), 5-day organic chemistry 0 demand (BOD), element (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between numerous pollutants were conjointly investigated victimization fifty samples. One gram of dry waste generated 1.21 grams COD, 0.58 grams BOD5, 0.36 grams Total SS, 0.025 grams Total N, and 0.013 grams Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and liquid phases indicated that four-hundredth of COD and half-hour of element were gift in soluble kind. Relative mass ratios of COD and element to solids were 3 to 5 times higher in particulates than in liquid part. However, COD/N ratios were higher in liquid kind than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Elaborated relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates area unit two hundredth, 3.6 percent, and 3.5 percent of the volatile suspended solids.
Quested et al. (2011) analyzed Decreasing measure of sustenance and beverage that was squandered, a key component in adding to an economical nourishment framework in the UK, the biggest commitment to nourishment waste was from homes: 8.3 million tons for each year, costing customers £12 billion and contributing 3 percent of UK nursery gas discharges. This paper depicts late experiences picked up from exploration by the Waste and Resources Action Program (WRAP) and others into the sorts of nourishment squandered, why it is squandered and what should be possible to minimize it. The examination techniques utilized which have parallels in dietary exploration were depicted and discoveries of enthusiasm to the field of sustenance are highlighted, including the effect of waste on admission (e.g. 0.8 parts of leafy foods were squandered per individual every day). The exercises embraced by WRAP and its accomplices to minimize family unit sustenance waste are portrayed: buyer engagement and working with retailers and nourishment makers to help customers to purchase the perfect sum, keep what they purchase getting it done and use what they purchase. Somewhere around 1006-2007 and 2009, the measure of family unit sustenance waste diminished, this is talked about in light of the work of WRAP and its accomplices, and different impacts, for example, nt t nourishment costs. Zones for future examination and engagement further lessen the amount and effect of sustenance waste.
Mackenzie et al. (2011) studied during 2008-2009 the building trade in port had to reply to a gentle increment normally food things and in basic food commodities. As most hotels in port predict their food value budgets a year earlier, these unforeseen and sudden will increase in food commodities came at a time once there was a worsening within the world economy within the wake of the money crisis and a worldwide respiratory disease A (H1N1) epidemic. There are articles revealed in welcome and touristy journals that have mentioned the difficulty of food value and management in hotels ensuing from poor storage and buying, portion management, and preparation and production ways. However, none of the previous studies has examined the unforeseen and speedy will increase within the value of foods and also the impact that this has had on the building trade. The measures adopted by port hotels of various tiers to manage or scale back expected food prices are analyzed during this study. This study utilized a cross-sectional exploratory style, encompassing in-depth personal interviews with food and drink managers and government chefs in high-, mid- and low-tier hotels in port. Supported the operational expertise of existing hotels, this study demonstrates that enhancing the standard of suppliers’ Commodities, sensible employees communication and coaching practices, •and innovative Concepts will improve a hotel’s money state of affairs.
Semba et al. (2011) carried out a study in rural Indonesia. The objective of the research was to determine the affiliation between paternal smoking and household food insecurity in poor families of rural Indonesia. Primary method of data collection was used. The study was a cross sectional study and total sample size was of 26380 rural households of Indonesia. The consequences of the study exhibited that prevalence of paternal smoking was 72.9%. Households with paternal smoking showed the mean household food security score of 1.83 and those without paternal smoking showed the mean score of 1.48. The results showed that paternal smoking was associated with greater household food insecurity score and households with father who smoke were at great risk of food insecurity in rural Indonesia.
Lin et al. (2011) estimated that the organic chemistry gas potentials for typical fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and waste product (FW) from a northern China town were investigated, that were 0.30, 0.56 M3 014/kg VS (volatile solids) with biodegradability’s of 59.3 percent and 83.6 percent severally. Individual anaerobic digestion testes of FVW and FW were conducted at the organic loading rate (OLR) of three kilogram VS/ (m3 day) employing a lab-scale continuous stained-tank reactor at 35°C. FVW may be digestible stably with the kg/cap/year). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in geographic & western Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilizers). Little per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (fresh water and fertilizers) and in industrial Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the littlest trod provide and resource losses occur in South & geographical region. If low log and waste percentages achieved in any region in every step of the f= SC may well be reached globally, food provide losses may well be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for roughly one billion further individuals. Reducing the food losses and waste would so be a vital step towards enhanced food security, and would conjointly increase the potency of resource use in food.
Tetteh (2011) conducted a study in Ghana. Household livelihoods in Ghana were explored by paying attention to livelihood constraints. Another purpose of the study was to distinguish between food secure and food insecure households. To explore their household livelihoods semi structured interviews were conducted while to distinguish between food secure and insecure households quantitative survey was used. The results revealed that more than half of the households were food insecure and main constraints in the achievement of food security were asset constraints and loss of farmland in the study area. And results also showed that food security was not only an issue of rural households but urban households were also affected by food insecurity.
Palwasha et al. (2011) conducted a study in rural Peshawar of KPK province. Main focus of the study was to determine food consumption arrangements and determine poverty line in the study area. Primary method of data collection was used. Random sample technique was used to select sample of 80 respondents. Results exposed that an average daily consumption of flour was 855.25 grams, 98.894 grams of meat, 203.122 grams of vegetables, 168.172 grams of rice, 284.86 grams of milk, 172.521 grams of sugar and 97.49 grams of fruit. This result showed a total of 2429 calories per day. When compared with the previous study it showed that average daily consumption remained higher than average daily calorie intake. Analysis also showed that 43% households were below poverty line, 55% were above poverty line and only 1% was on poverty line.
Asghar (2011) conducted a study in rural and urban areas of Pakistan. Main objective of the study was to find and investigate food safety indicators relating to food access and food utilization. Data used in the study was taken from HIES 2007-08 which was conducted as a part of Pakistan Social and living Management Survey. HIES 2007/08 involved a sample of 15512 households. A two stage stratified random sample technique was used. In the first stage primary sampling technique were selected in the urban and rural areas of Pakistan. In the second stage a sample of 15512 household was randomly selected through these primary sampling units. Results showed that almost 25% of households were highly food insecure, 40% of population was moderately food insecure. Cereals comprised more than 50% of calories consumed by all income groups. Better educated household heads were less food insecure. Household size and food security were negatively related. Sindh province had the highest percentage of food insecure population while in absolute no Punjab had the highest no of food insecurity.
Liu et al. (2012) studied the fast transition from a command to market-based economy in China, needed the event of a food safety system for aquatic product. Wherever, one didn’t antecedently exist. The pace of modification has meant that food safety systems have struggled to stay up. In 2007 food safety incidents broken the name of aquatic product in export markets. The Chinese Government has hurried to strengthen the security regime for aquatic product. The aim of this paper is to assess these initiatives within the context of their potential to regain international acceptance of Chinese aquatic product. A restrictive assessment approach is employed. The findings area unit that exaggerated government oversight alone isn’t doubtless to guide to a totally effective food safety system for aquatic product. China’s restrictive regimes area unit usually opaque, limiting the power of these desire to assess the wisdom of commercialism food product from China.
Verain et al. (2012) discussed sustainable food consumption was a vital side of property development. Once adopting a property food life style, customer’s area unit confronted with Complicated decisions, Today’s food consumption is simply too complicated to be explained by socio-demographic factors completely. A broader perspective is required. So as to elucidate behavior across completely different shopper segments higher, comparatively unvaried segments of food customers were known by segmenting food customers supported a good vary kg/cap/year). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in geographic & western Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilizers). Littlest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (fresh water and fertilizers) and in industrial Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the littlest trod provide and resource losses occur in South & geographical region. If low log and waste percentages achieved in any region in every step of the f= SC may well be reached globally, food provide losses may well be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for roughly one billion further individuals. Reducing the food losses and waste would so be a vital step towards enhanced food security, and would conjointly increase the potency of resource use in food production.
Khan et al. (2012) conducted a study in rural areas of Pakistan. The main focus of the study was to estimate those factors that had substantial impression on food security in developing countries like Pakistan. This was the first study conducted in Pakistan which examined the determinants of three aspects of food security in rural Pakistan, food supply, food availability and food absorption. Primary method of data collection was used. Households were interviewed through questionnaires from rural areas of Pakistan. OLS was used for analysis of the result and each element of food security was a purpose of socioeconomic variables. The findings of the study showed that production of wheat, rice, maize, pulses, poultry meat and fish at the district level affected food security positively. All the districts except Sindh was more food insecure in food availability. Child immunization, safe drinking water and no of hospital showed positive effect on food absorption. In the food accessibility electrification and adult literacy had negative effect.
Corderio et al. (2012) conducted a study in Kilosa district of Tanzania. Main objectives of the study were to examine the connotation between food insecurity and under nutrition, to measure the nutritional status of adolescents in Kilosa and to measure the association between under nutrition and other three indicators of food security. Primary method of data collection was used for this purpose and total sample size comprised of 670 adolescents from Kilosa district of Tanzania. The results of the study exhibited that measures of household food security, diversity dietary score were highly associated with each other and household assets. The results also showed that about 21% of adolescents were undernourished in the study area. Another striking result of the study was that household energy adequacy per adult household dietary diversity score were inversely related with each other.
Hussain and Routray (2012) conducted a study in different areas of Pakistan. The main focus of the study was to determine the level of food self-sufficiency in the country, and food gap between the national food security line of the country and consumption by the people. Another major objective of the study was to find out the major physical and economic factors which were responsible for food security in Pakistan. For this purpose secondary data was used with the help of some primary information. The main findings of their results showed that Pakistan was almost self-sufficient in food production but despite of this self-sufficiency the average consumption of its people was still below the standards set up for national food security line. The study also showed that food gap in the country was 30% while 35 % of food was unavailable due to various physical, economic and natural factors.
Bashir et al. (2012) carried out a study in rural areas of province Punjab in Pakistan to determine the overall food security situation in Pakistan in general and determinants of household food security in particular. Both primary and secondary data was collected. Primary data was collected through 1152 households from 12 districts of Punjab through questionnaire survey. And secondary data was collected from FAO and Government of Pakistan data source. Through the secondary data identification of food security was done at national level and through primary data household food security was estimated through the calorie intake method and socioeconomic factors affecting food security through regression model. According to the results of secondary data Pakistan was a food sufficient and food secure country but results of primary data were reverse. Those consequences disclosed that 23% of the sample households were food insecure. Further monthly income livestock assets and education level have a positive effect on rural food security while large household and joint family system had negative effect.
Jensen et al. (2012) under the banner of United States Department of Agriculture USDA, studied the household food security in US. Her research was based on primary data, collected from 54000 households randomly. According to their research findings about 85% household were food secure while 14.5% household were insecure include 5.7% were highly food insecure while 10% children were highly food insecure. They do not have enough money to easily access the pure water, clean environment and nutritious food, necessary for human body. They also find that food insecure people do not have any kind of insurance hence their medical facilities are very expensive so they could not afford doctors, medicines or any other medical test or facility.
Arshad and Adila (2012), conducted a study to identify the food security indicators, distribution and techniques for agriculture sustainability in Pakistan. They indicated that clean and nutritious food and clean environment is one of the major issue which developing countries are facing today. State of food security is directly linked with food availability and price of food products. Continuous change in environmental conditions and threats to sustainable development factors are increasing with upsurge in urbanization in developing countries like Pakistan, India and Bangladesh etc. the issues of poverty and food shortage are increasing continuously after 1970s.
Psaki et al. (2012) conducted a study in eight countries of the world. The drive of the study was to explore the affiliation between household food access and nutritional status of children in early childhood across eight countries. A socioeconomic survey was conducted and 800 households were selected randomly from eight countries. Nine food access items were asked in the questionnaire. Questions were asked on anthropometric measurements on children aged 24 to 60 months. Multivariable regression model was used to analyze the data. The results showed that mean food access insecurity score was 5.8 and ranged from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites the prevalence of stunting was much higher (42%) than wasting (6%). Results also showed that a 10 point increase in household food access insecurity was associated with 0.20 SD decrease in height. So the study showed that food insecurity affected the nutritional status of children in the studied countries.
Bashir et al. (2012) conducted a study to examine food security trends in Pakistan and also to determine the household’s food security and impact of different factors on the household food security. A total of 1152 households were surveyed using a questionnaire based method. Food intake status of the households was taken into account based calorie intake from the households. Logistic regression was used to determine the socio-economic factors affecting food security at household’s level. Also secondary data was analyzed from the FAO website to determine the food security status of the country which showed that at state level Pakistan is food secure country but at households the food security is a problem. Econometric analysis revealed that livestock assets, monthly income and education levels were positively impacting the rural household food security whereas family size, joint family system and greater household heads’ age affected the food security negatively.
Buzby and Hyman (2012) estimated the value and amount of lost food from 200 food items in the US based on US Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service’s Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data. They aggregated these values to get an idea of the total value of food lost and their value by individual groups. The results showed that in 2008 the estimated consumer and retailer level were $165.6 billion. The top three commodities of the food lost were in vegetables (17%), fish (41%) and meat, poultry and dairy products (14%). However looking the losses at consumer level it was observed that at consumer level the food losses were 124 kg of food which was wasted during consumption, per capita, with an average value of $ 390/capita/year during 2008. These results are very favorable to estimate the food losses and to devise a policy related to food products. These results also generates awareness of the issues among governments, consumers and food industry members
Nahman et al. (2012) studied the food losses from the household in South Africa, in and their impacts on the food security. The objectives of the study were to draw attention to of the food industry, consumers and governments to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. They also estimated economic value and cost associated to show the impact of food losses on huger and food security. The cost of the food items lost was estimated using market price of the commodities and their weighted average was taken. The total cost of the lost food was estimated using cost model. It was observed that food losses in the households led to a loss of approximately 0.82% of the South Africa’s GDP with an annual loss of R21.7 billion (approximately US $ 2.7 billion). Further household loss of the food commodities accounted for less than 4% of the total food lost in the food chain. It was observed these cost are very much and drew attention of the policy makers, governments and food industry owners to cut down this loss to ensure the food security.
Oelofse and Nahman (2013) devised a study to estimate the total food wastage generation (including pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste) among the South African community. The study was based on data obtained from the available food supply on South Africa and food losses at each step of the food supply chain were for sub-Saharan Africa. The data showed that a preliminary magnitude of food wasted in the South Africa is about 9.04 million tonnes per annum. Whereas according to a previous survey the amount of food lost per capita at the food supply center was 177 kg/capita/annum whereas the food wastage at the consumption stage were 7 kg/capita/annum. The study attracted the attention of different stake holders to do proper legislation to reduce these food losses.
ADB (2013) published a report in Philippines’ on gender equality and food security in Asia and Pacific. According to this report females are facing inequalities in every aspect of life. They can’t have equal opportunities of job, they can’t get school level or high education as male persons of their societies, they can’t have equal living standard, health facilities even their food requirement is not fulfilled as their body need. All this result in too much burden on male members to feed the family, to provide them facilities while on female side low literacy, low knowledge and wisdom, poor health and an unhappy environment in home. Hence the problem of poverty and food security become severe. But on the other hand, if females treat equally they can share the responsibilities of male members and take active part in household progress as well as play their part in country’s economy.
Schneider (2013) studied that the research on refuse could be a topic of predominant significance that is additionally mirrored during a growing variety of reports and scientific papers revealed on-line additionally as in scientific journals. The aim of this paper is to summarize revealed, international analysis on refuse bar with relevance totally different countries and segments on the food offer chain to point wherever such info is obtainable. The main target is on papers in English. it had been found that an outsized quantity of data is obtainable in regions like North America, Western Europe and to a lesser extent in Australia and geographical area, whereas elsewhere there’s a definite lack of refuse connected publication in English. Agricultural info is gathered from most developing countries, however ménage waste is mostly investigated at intervals industrial regions. Some topics have to this point not been targeted sufficiently, as an example methodology, definitions, logistics, wholesale and distribution.
Kosseva (2013) analyzed that food waste may be an important world drawback for economic, environmental, and Mod security reasons, It is been calculable that between twenty fifth and five hundredth of food manufacture is wasted on the availability chain. There’s conjointly environmental impact related to the inefficient use of natural resources like water, energy, and land. Government efforts have targeted on entertaining waste far from lowland through regulation, taxation, and public awareness. The primary and most significant task is to cut back the amount of waste created by the food trade, then to develop strategies to valorize unused co products and improve the management of wastes that can’t be reused or recycled. Lrfe Cycle Assessment (LCA) helped to spot the steps within the organic phenomenon that have the biggest impact on the setting so as to focus on improvement efforts. Information of the principles of business ecology makes development of life cycle thinking and inexperienced technologies potential.
Schneider (2013) studied the donation of food that continues to be edible will be seen as a particular application of urban mining as food is recovered for its original purpose — human intake. There square measure many comes enforced worldwide however owing to an absence of information, scientific literature concerning the subject is rare. This paper summarizes in brief the evolution of food donation activities and provides info on the variations and similarities of current organizations distributing food to individuals in want yet because the political, legal, social and logistic barriers and incentives that occur with reference to this subject. An inspiration for a food donation network is conferred and impact on ecology, economy and society is mentioned.
Meacham et al. (2013) analyzed the report provided a summary on the state of waste material within the context of worldwide consumption, and explores intimately the challenges around reducing waste material among the United Kingdom. The aim of the report is to tell all stakeholders concerned within the world Food Security program and establish key information gaps and areas wherever analysis and innovation could significantly address the challenge of reducing waste. Half one provides a top level view of waste material within the context of hunger and supply-chain capabilities among developing and developed countries. The key causes of waste material among the United Kingdom supply-chain square measure mentioned partly 2, with a selected concentrate on Great Britain households as a big contributor. Ball 3 proposes potential solutions that address the key challenges of waste material among food supply-chains, and half four provides a modern perspective into shopper behaviors and also the Great Britain food supply-chain.
John et al. (2013) conducted a study in the forest belt of central region of Ghana. Main objective of the study was to examine the food security status of households in the study area. Primary method of data collection was used and multistage sampling technique was used to select the candidates for data collection. Total sample size was of 134 households but 120 were selected for analysis and other were dropped due to poor administration. Data was collected through eight communities of two districts. The study showed that most of the farming households about 60% were food insecure. The results of binary logit model showed that an increase in household income as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production had improved the food security status of the study area. However having all other factors constant, increase in the no of non-working members worsened the food security status in forest belt of central region of Ghana.
Obayelu (2013) conducted a study in north central Nigeria. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate and highpoint the commonly used measure of food security, to determine food security status of households and to analyze the factors of family nutrition security status in the study area. Primary method of data collection comprising of multistage sampling technique was used. Questions were asked through structured questionnaires. Total sample size was of 396. To analyze the data descriptive statistics and multivariate logit analysis were used. Descriptive analysis showed that only 16% of households were food secure, 36% food insecure without hunger, 28& food insecure with moderate hunger and 21% food insecure with severe hunger. The results of logit model showed that geographical location, marital status, gender of household head, household size, household expenditure and education level, occupation of household head and agriculture land holding size ratio affected household food security status.
Amir et al. (2013) carried out a study in KPK province of Pakistan. The aim of the study was to analyze the state of household food security and identifying the strategies to deal with the situation of food shortages in those areas of Pakistan. Two districts were selected and one tehsil from each district was selected randomly. Respondents were selected through convenient sampling from these tehsils and total sample size was of 60. Questions were asked through a questionnaire consisted of both qualitative and quantitative questions. The main findings of the study were that food prices were very high. Hurdles in the production of food were less market access, high prices of fertilizers and lack of irrigation water. Low food output shifted the farmers from food crops to cash crops and as a result income of people rises and play a significant role in the stability of food security. Moreover people expressed their desire that they will reduce their expenditures on agricultural inputs.
Abafita and Kim (2014) investigated the issues of food security at household level in rural areas Ethiopia. To study these factors of food security two various indicators were used. Principal component analysis PCA were used to measure the food security index which covers all three fields of food security. They collect data by using a comprehensive questionnaire from a long time period since 2009, from the same families. Econometric model was used to find out the results which indicated that per capita intake expenditures, livestock and rainfall for agriculture sector had positive effect on food security. On the other hand personal description of family’s head i.e. age, gender, education etc. has negative impact on food security index. They present some policy implications regarding employment and income producing opportunities, increase the education and livestock level to make food access and utilization easy in rural areas of Ethiopia.
Bashir et al. (2014) examined the impact of demand side polices of government on the food security state of landless rural along with the govt. achievements in Punjab regarding this issue. They investigated the effect on food security of strategies of two demand sides of landless country side households. By the use of partial equilibrium technique, they prepared a theoretical model to achieve their goal. They collected primary information from 576 landless households of rural area and used two stage regression technique. The first phase specifies that subsidies on food items widely improve the food consumption while 2nd phase specifies that increase in monthly income is because of various factors i.e. wage rates, education level of intermediary of household members, total assets of livestock and family system(joint or nuclear).
Muhammad et al. (2014) conducted a study in Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to determine the state of food insecurity in Pakistan and highlight the drivers impacting on food supply and consumption patterns mainly in Pakistan and generally overview of global demand and supply. Data about major crops like wheat, rice and sugarcane was obtained. The data was collected about their area of cultivation, crops productivity per annum and yields of crops. Secondary data was used for this purpose. Source of data was economic survey of Pakistan and Pakistan bureau of statistics. The data was taken from 1997-2013. SPSS was used for the analysis of the study. Results showed that Pakistan was facing food insecurity that was reflected in 61 districts. Half of the population (48.6%) did not have access to sufficient and healthy food at all times. Main reason of food insecurity was that people did not have access to food and they could not afford healthy food. Further results showed that climate change had effect on crop production which affected food security.
Ahmad et al. (2015) conducted a study in rural and urban areas of Pakistan. Main purpose of their study was to evaluate food consumption patterns among rural urban households in Pakistan at national as well as on provisional level with different income groups. Spending elasticity’s of selected food items were calculated to know the differences in consumption patterns of rural and urban households. Source of data was secondary. Data was taken from Federal Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad. For this purpose cross sectional data compiled in HIES 1998-1999 was used. Households were categorized into five income groups, two low income groups, two high income groups and mean of these groups. The results of the research showed that rural and urban households had different consumption patterns. However. Households in the low income groups spent a larger proportion of their income on wheat, pulses and vegetables while high income groups spent their income on rice, meat and fish, milk and milk products both in rural and urban areas.
Butt et al. (2015) conducted a study in Faisalabad, Pakistan to quantify the food wastage in restaurants of Faisalabad city and to create awareness among the citizens of Faisalabad about food security. Results showed that people were not aware of food wastage. The results show training to all employee and owner’s education was must to reduce food wastage in restaurant. Awareness about food wastage had negative relation with food wastage as more awareness was the result of less wastage of food. Owner’s education had negative relation with food wastage. High education results less food wastage. Results revealed that high rate of meal serve per day caused food wastage. A well-mannered and skilled staff avoids food wastage by guiding and through providing meal according to their taste and requirements.
Ghaffar et al. (2015) determined the food security status of peri urban areas of district Sahiwal Punjab, Pakistan. The objective of her study was to determine the factors affecting food security in general and food utilization in particular. Total sample size was of 105. Results showed that the 65% respondents were food secure at 2350Kcal per person per day while 35% were food insecure at this level. 60% were food secure at 2450Kcal per person per day and 40% were food insecure at this level.
Hussain et al. (2015) tried to explore the food utilization with the measurement of food security, nutritional security, factors affecting food security, its utilization in urban and peri urban area of district Nankana Sahib Punjab, Pakistan. Household level information was gathered from 210 low income households from urban and peri urban areas of research area. His results show that around 30% of the household found food insecure in urban area however this situation is slightly better in peri urban area where 17% found food insecure. His investigation has exposed that female education had the best effect on food security.
Kaur et al. (2015) studied the linkage between food scarcity and obesity in 2-11 years old children of US. During 2012 the obesity situation exists in children about 17%, however non-Hispanic white children show less obesity as compare to non-Hispanic black children. This obesity was due to variation in food pattern. Collected data was based on two factor, Child level (household level) and personal (individual children) food security. T-test was used to examine the significance of children’s obesity with food security and without food security. Obesity was related to food scarcity in 6-11 years old children. They find out that health situation of children must check at individual level because children at household level did not show correlation between obesity and food security.
Stancu et al. (2016) examined effect of socio-demographic characteristics, food-related routines, psycho-social factors and household perceived capabilities on food waste. Data was gathered fom 1062 Danish respondents to measures planning, reuse of leftover routines, intentions not to waste the food and many other factors. It was observed in the results that use of left overs and shopping routines are the principle drives of food waste whereas other factors like planning the good reduce the food wastage. It was also observed that some other values like norms and attitudes of people towards the food waste have strong relationship with the food wastage while moral norms and perceived behavioral control make no significant contribution. Hence from the study it was concluded that initiatives should be taken at the consume level to enhance the awareness among the people which will help to reduce the food loss among the communities.
Chapter 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
This chapter is about the methodology to select 50 restaurants and marriage halls from the capital city of Pakistan Islamabad. Variables are set to do a pilot survey and interviews with the management, apply the multiple regression models to analyze the data. The precise discussion is in below points.
Islamabad is located in the Pothohar plateau in the north eastern part of the country, between Rawalpindi district and the Margalla Hills National Park to the north. The region has historically been a part of the cross roads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa with the Margalla Pass acting ast the gateway between the two regions. Islamabad was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan’s capital. The city master plan divides the city into 8 basic zones, including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, and rural and green areas.
Table 3.1 shows the collection of the data from the management of restaurants and marriage halls of Islamabad, Pakistan. The data were collected from the eight different zones of Islamabad including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, and rural and green areas.
3.2 Characteristic Variables:
The study was conducted to clarify the objectives of the research which were set to quantify the food wastage at restaurants and marriage halls.
3.3 Questionnaire Development
50 Questionnaires for each restaurants and marriage were designed on the basis of selected variables. Questionnaires were formulated in a very simple way. Easy questions but with full information were asked from the management of restaurants and marriage halls and consumers.
3.4 Data and Source
Food wastage is an important issue all around the world as 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally within a year (FAO, 2012). More food wastage causes more food insecurity. To create awareness among the people of Islamabad a research initiative was taken to minimize food wastage at restaurants and marriage halls and to create awareness among the consumers about the bad results of food wastage e.g. food security. Islamabad is divided into eight zones (administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, and rural and green areas) and questionnaire was designed to collect the data from the management of 50 restaurants and 50 marriage halls to determine the behavior and socio economic factors about the food wastage in selected restaurants and marriage halls of Islamabad. Data were collected both in quantitative and qualitative terms.
3.5 Sampling and sample size
Stratified sampling was accurate way to collect sample from a population. Scholars used stratified sampling (Eriksson et al., (2012). City was divided into eight zones diplomatic, industrial, educational, commercial, residential, rural and green areas By applying random sampling a sample of 5 to 10 restaurants and marriage halls were taken from each of zones and total 50 restaurants and 50 marriage halls. Questionnaire was designed to collect the information from hotel management.
3.6 Multiple Regression Model:
A multiple regression model was used to estimate the food wastage (Stefen,2011) . In this study a multiple regression model was run to quantify food wastage at restaurants.
Yi = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + β4X4 + β5X5 ……………….+ βiXi + E (Eq. 1)
Y, = Dependent variable (food wastage)
β0 = Intercept of the equation
β1 = Slope coefficient of explanatory variables
X1- Xi = Explanatory variable (1 to i)
E = Error term
Actual equation is
Dependence of food wastage = Intercept+ Total Sale of Food/kg +Food Serve per person/kg +Owner’s Education + Owner’s Awareness
3.7: Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of the Data
All data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; Version 17.0) One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and student t-test and f-test were applied on data to quantify the food wastage through a significance (P). The value of p (probability) less than or equal to 0.05 was considered to be the significant and if p > 0.05 the result was to be considered statistically non-significant. A multiple regression model was applied to quantify the dependent variable (food wastage) with respect to explanatory variables to calculate R2 and adjusted R2 value for restaurants.
Chapter 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
In this chapter we are explaining the findings from the descriptive and inferential statistics.
With the help of descriptive results, one does able to see the results in the form of frequencies
and percentages. All the variables were explained separately to show the impact and that
variable’s significance in the result. Furthermore inferential statistics were analyzed to estimate
the association of explanatory variables with dependent variable.
4.1 Estimation of Food Wastage in Restaurants:
I asked about awareness of food wastage in restaurants from the managers or owners of the restaurant. I gave them four options 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 percent. Table 4.1 shows thatonly11 out of 50 managers were fully aware means 100 percent aware from food wastage. This means that only 22 percent managers are fully aware. 28 percent managers were 50 percent aware from food wastage. 26 percent managers were 75 percent aware from food wastage. 24 percent managers were 25 percent aware from food wastage. Lack of awareness is due the lack of education, lack of training and hotel management course. I asked them that how much you serve in one plate of vegetable.
Table 4.2 shows the education of managers of restaurants. 38 percent managers said that they have done masters, 32 percent managers said that they have done graduation. 20 percent managers said that they have F.A. 6 percent managers said that they have done matric and 4 percent managers said that they have done M.Phil.
Table 4.3 shows that how much they serve in one plate of vegetable. 25 out of 50 managers said that they serve 100-200 grams in one plate of vegetable and percentage of these managers was 50 percent. Only 8 percent managers said that they serve 400-500 grams. While 28 percent and 14 managers said that they serve 201-300 and 301-400 grams respectively.
Similarly I asked them that how much they serve meat in one plate. Table 4.4 shows that how much they serve meat in one plate. 36 percent managers said that they serve 451-600 grams. 12 percent managers said that they serve 600-750 grams in one plate of meat. While 28 and 24 percent managers said that they serve 150-300 and 301-450 grams in one plate of meat. The difference that big five star restaurant serves more as they charge more.
Similarly I asked them that how much they serve rice and pulses in one plate. Table 4.5 and 4.6 shows that how much they serve rice and pulses in one plate. In table 4.5 50 percent managers said that they serve 100-300 grams rice in one plate and 6 percent managers said that they serve 701-above grams in one plate. While 34 and 10 percent managers said that they serve 301-500 and 501-700 grams rice in one plate. Similarly in table 4.6 66 percent managers said that they serve 50-225 grams pulses in one plate and 34 percent managers said that they serve 226-400 grams pulses in one plate. If you look at all the serve tables, you will notice that they serve meat more than any other commodity because people like meat more than anything else.
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