Aneela Shaheen

ecosystem of the namal  valley

selected area

Namal  valley union council of district mianwali.


Fishing rod, net boat ,thermometer  ,spatula, bottles, tuzer.


This research article includes ecosystem of namal valley and the different habitat of the area. Discuss the flaura and fauna of the area and their adaptation, and  also declared the importance of envirmental factor qualitatively and quantitaviely , ,major issue releated to the Namal as wetland of pakistana also our under study.


Namal valley is located in one corner of the Rikhi   , union councel of district mianwali , Punjab,Pakistan. It was formed following the construction of Namal Dam in 1913. Namal Dam is situated some 32 km from the Mianwali city,and also having  lake in this area that fomoue by the name namal lake, has a surface area of 5.5 km². There are mountains on its western and southern sides. On the other two sides are agricultural area Namal lake water has TDS, Sulphate and Sulfide in abundance. This beautiful valley has many stunning and eye-catching sceneries, hills, an old and historical lake . One more historical attraction of this valley is the “Loni road” it is an old passage on the hills of the Namal valley that was used by the mughals for different purpose,  Namal College is a technical college associated with the University of Bradford also situatad near to the namal lake.Tourist all around the countery visited the namal valley because of their sceniory beauty. Namal lake is very beautiful and hosting the migrated Siberian birds in the winter season every year. This valley is just like the second home for these migrated birds. The Namal valley is an enjoyable picnic point. The whole  valley is full of nature. You will feel great peaceful atmosphere while visiting this natural asset of Pakistan. The visit of this valley is just like to take your mind on the one point and that is just to discover this magical valley.

Different habitate near to the namal lake,

Equatic Habitate:


In our research we observe the equatic habitate of the namal  lake by using the simple apparatus,net and the hook,fishing rod used for capturing the fish,and commonly the carp ,and gulfam fishes presnt in the the namal lake ,these fishes commonly used for food   in this area .There are also different types of migratory birds present near to the lake ,every year in winter season migratory birds from the sibera migrate and take refuge on this lake due to this reason this lake must be declared as ramsser site,land of national and international importance  by the ramasar convetion ,these wetland are the breeding site of the waterfowls ,and the migratory birds that present near to the lake and we observe the following birds flamingos,lesser flamingo , cattel egret,purple heron and ducts .These migratory birds commonly feed on the fishes ,and small insect that present near to the lake .The beauty of the area is influenced  by the pollution ,there is no cleaning system of the area and the people that live near to the lake throw their waste material into the water,and near the lake that is dangerous for the both migratory birds and the resident spacie of the area .Algae also grows in the lake water, Algae grow when they have the right conditions such as adequate nutrients (mostly phosphorus but nitrogen is important too), light levels, pH, temperature, etc. Generally the amount of phosphorus controls the amount of algae found in a freshwater lake or water body. The more nutrient-enriched a lake, typically the more algae in the lake. Algae are the base of the food chain and essential to the life in the lake,so the presence of algae in namal lake indicates that water contain nutrients ,and having adequate temprarure condition that require for the growth of algae.


A food chain shows the pathway  of energy transfer from one living thing to another .

Plants form the base of   Lakes food chains. They’re called producers, because they make their own food by converting sunlight through photosynthesis. They also act as food, providing energy for other organisms. In the   Lakes, most producers are phytoplankton, or microscopic floating plants. An example of phytoplankton is green algae. Large rooted plants, another type of producer, provide food and shelter for different organisms, fish and wildlife.

  • Primary Consumers.
    The next level in the food chain is made up of primary consumers, or organisms that eat food produced by other organisms. Examples of primary consumers include zooplankton, ducks,  and small crustaceans.

  • Secondary Consumers.
    Secondary consumers make up the third level of the food chain. Secondary consumers feed on smaller, plant-eating animals (primary consumers). Examples of secondary consumers include , small fish, crayfish and frogs.

  • Tertiary consumer.
    Tertiary food predators are at the top of the food chain. Top predators eat plants, primary consumers and/or secondary consumers. They can be carnivores or omnivores. Tertairy predators typically sit a top of the food chain without predators of their own. Examples include fish lake , birds such as herons,  .

Agriculture area near to the namal lake .    

In the namal valley also having agriculture area people of the namal grow different crop in different seasonl time,and get  money from these crops ,usually grow wheat in winter and vegetables in summer ,this land is fertile due to the presence of the natural water of  the lake, Mianwali district namal valley falls in arid and semi-arid zone of Pakistan. The land can be classified as loamy with clay soil which is suitable for wheat and mustard, sandy soil, cultivated mainly for the rain-fed gram, Guara, and the irrigated areas which are mostly under wheat, cotton . Citrus plantation is also being carried out successfully in the area.Many different  type of animals are also present in agriculture area of the namal lake.This habitate provide food &shelter to the animals ,like jackal ,wolf & mountain goat . Jackal like to live in such type of place because this provide place to hide them selve.Jackal is very timorous animal that’s why he used to live in this area.along with such types of wild animals domestic animals are also present here  like buffalo,dog,donkey,goat,cow these animals like to feed on grass as guara , barseen & alfalfa that mostly grow in that area .

Forest of  namal valley

Many types of tress are present there that makes forest in that area like snobar ,Egyptian spine tree keekar (Acacia nilotica),barrey(prunus spinosa) ,sheesham,(roose wood),pinus cone tree e.t.c.Mostly keekar &berry are present there . This forest provide residence for wild animals & birds .Birds used to make nest on tress . Mostly green parrots like to make nest on pine cone tress .Other birds like crows, sparrows ,dove ,myna ,hoopoe birds live there ,this place is also suitable for these birds because the fruit of these tress provide food to that birds also feed on rice ,wheat ,grain ,cereals  provided by the people that visit shrin of Ban hafiz ji.

Qualitative & Quantitative analysis:-

The place which we select for research have. quantitative & qualitative importance . as we discuss temperature of that area  , temprature of namal raise to 7 in winter & 45 in summer that is useful for living organisms present there. Light originating from the sun is essential to all life on earth.Light affects photosynthetic plants in a number of ways. Red and blue light in the visible wavelength are absorbed by photosynthetic organisms, and while the quality of light does not vary much on land, it can be a limiting factor in the lake . Light intensity varies with both latitude and seasonality, with hemispherical differences varying among organisms because of the switching of the seasons. Some organisms, such as fish, can only exist in a  aquatic environment, and rapidly die when removed from water. Other organisms can survive in some of the driest environments in the world. lake water more in abundant sulphate and essential nutrient is also avalible for the growth of algae. The water of the whole Namal valley not good for the human health due to the more abundant of the salt ,and also distasteful.

Adpated  animal of  the namal vally

Sandy  (penis:  is adapted animal of this area . It is basically animal of desert area mostly found in sindh & balouchistan temprature range in summer  cross the figure of 50 C ,but it adapt itself according to ecosystem of namal .Sandy present in this area has an organ that contain store oil . This store oil mainly provide heat ,to survive in mostly the  cold enviorment of namal , because the average temperature of the area in winter falls 7 C & in summer rais to 45 C .people obtain oil from sandy ,its oil is beneficial for joints pain and male sexual disorder .



The generic name Eucalyptus is derived from the Greek ‘eu’, meaning ‘well’, and ‘kalypto’, meaning ‘to cover, There are more than 700 species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, it is now being widely used throughout the world to provide wood products . The rapid depletion of nutrient reserves in the soil as a result of eucalyptus cultivation and it also disturb the water table because absorbed more water from the soil and also disturbed the native flora of the area where they cultivated .Eucleptus adapt themselves in almost all the region of Pakistan countery ,in namal valley also eucalyptus plant present eucleptus adapt in this area because the soil of this area contain more water and also contain nutrients that is essentail for the survival of eucalyptus,tempratur range of then namal valley also suitable for it.They shed part of their canopy to reduce their water intake during high temprature or heat.By having a deeper root system to store water & neutrients is useful to be able to survive.


Byri is a spine tree of sandy area  have small fruits &small leaves .size of the tree is large .but in  the namal that is rocky land has less ability to hold water it is difficult for plant to get nutrients so tree  adopt it itself according to the enviormrent of area ,due to the less nutrient avialble for this plant their size reduced  and their fruit size also very small in size in that area .


There is a need to increase public awareness for the conservative use of domestic water. The installation of sewage treatment plants to properly dispose sewage water and to avoid agricultural soil contamination is a must.


  • The government must control upstream pollution in the lakes, if government does not take the action , lake of the Namal valley also being polluted like  the Kallar Kahar, Uchali and Jhalar lakes.  Namal is a wetland of Pakistan’s  and associated flora and fauna are facing a wide range of threat.the cause behind of these  threats is the different activities of the people include the over-exploitation of wetlands resources such as destructive fishing practices, over-harvesting of wetlands vegetation, over-grazing and illegal hunting of bird.


  • Ramssar convention must be declare this land  as ramssar site because this land hosting the migratory bird ,rammsar convention must  be declare the rule for the protection of migratory bird . February is observed as wetland day along with other nations of the world, but, lot more is required to be done to save this precious resource. If we succeed in creating awareness among the people about the conservation and ‘Wise Use Concept’ of wetland resources, these can expectantly not only benefit us for long period of time but can serve our future generations also. In this regard, more scientific studies are also required to be conducted on the recognition and application of techniques for the sustained management of wetlands of the country in the wake of climate change and expansion of man economic activities.

  • References
    Western  Mail.  XXIX,  (1, 469). Western Australia.
    20 February 1914. p. 30. Retrieved 15 August 2016  via National Library of Australia.

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