East Pakistan And Sheikh Mujeeb UR Rehman

Yasmeen Qureshi

East Pakistan And Sheikh Mujeeb UR Rehman

History cannot be changed but lots of lessons can we learn from it. After the independence, the main problem started with Pakistan was that Pakistan didn’t give equal facility and importance to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) then West Pakistan. That’s why confidence was strong raise in East Pakistan. As a result, Bengalis declared independence from Pakistan 16 Dec 1971.Was the day in Pakistan history when Pakistan’s eastern command surrendered to India army thus ending the civil war in East Pakistan and Pakistan lost its east wing (now Bangladesh).While a day of jubilation for the people of Bangladesh, it is a black day for the Federation of Pakistan and can be considered as the lowest point in its history. In my view, 1971 war was a civil war. It was actually between East and West Pakistan at that time. In other words, it was the war of power between Mujib and Bhutto. Bangladesh liberation war of 1971, for legal rights, language, culture and above all. I think discrimination has created this war Like Quota discrimination, job, age discrimination, and color, parental, political and economic discrimination. Various factors were involved in the separation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), it’s the result of the political and constitutional crisis and wrong policies of the government but the main character of this and founding father of Bangladesh “Sheikh Mujib ur Rehman. Sheikh Mujib ur Rehman was a Bengali politician and statesman. He is the founding father of the people’s republic of Bangladesh. He was elected as a member of provincial assembly and later as a member of the national parliament twice he becomes a minister in the East Pakistan government. He served as a served as a first president of Bangladesh and later Prime minister of Bangladesh from March 1971 until his assassination in August 1975. He is popularly known as Bangabandhu (friend of Bengal). He becomes a leading figure in and eventually the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan Based political party in Pakistan. Mujib was created as an important figure in efforts to gain politician autonomy for East Pakistan and later as a central figure behind the Bangladesh liberation movement and the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971. That’s why he is regarded “Jatir Janak” (father of nation) of Bangladesh. His daughter Haseena Wajid is the current leader or Awami League and Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The founding father of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujib ur Rehman was born on 22 March 1922 in Faridpur, a village in the province of Bengal. He had a very strong political talent. After passing his matriculation exams from a local school, he got admission in Islamia College as a Law student. In 1940 he entered student’s politics and also joined all India Muslim students’ federation. In 1943 he joined Muslim League. He was playing the very important role in Muslim League’s struggle for separate homeland Pakistan. When he becomes a lawyer, he actively works with Suhrawardy and Bengali Muslim Leaguers. After the creation of Pakistan, he founded the East Pakistan Muslim Students League and proved himself to be one of the major student politicians at that time. A Bengali nationalist in him, made him think more about the rights of Bengalis than the future of Pakistan after 1947. In March 1948 Muhammad Ali Jinnah declared in Dhaka that Urdu will be the national language of Pakistan, Mujib tried to protest, however, he failed to gain much support against the people’s favourite leader and was arrested for leading a black-flag of a demonstration against Jinnah on this issue. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam, due to the wrong policies of the establishment in Pakistan, the idea of Bengali nationalism gained roots in East Bengal. On 24 June 1949 many Bengali Muslim Leaguers including Mulana Bhashai and Fazl Haq founded a new political party called East Pakistan Awami Muslim League. Mujib was first nominated as the joint secretary and was later made the general secretary of the party. In 1950, Suhrawardy launched a party called All Pakistan Awami Muslim League and Mujib work closely with him in organizing the party, then he elected to the East Bengal legislative assembly in 1954. He was also nominated as the member of the second constituent assembly of Pakistan. Marshal law imposed by Ayub Khan in 1958, Mujib opposed it and as a result was for a year and a half. With the death of Suhrawardy and Khawaja Nazimuddin during 1963-64, whole Bengali politics directly come in the hands of Mujib. Under his leadership, Awami league had become a most prominent party of East Bengal. During 1965 elections, he joined other parties against Ayub Khan and played important role in the formulation of combined opposition. His party launched the campaign of Fatima Jinnah in East Bengal during her elections against General Ayub Khan. Fatima gains more votes from East Pakistan than West Pakistan. He was elected the member of the national assembly and always opposed the activities of the Pakistani establishment. During the war of 1965, he supported Pakistani forces against India. Dismembrence of Pakistan: – Bangladesh (former East Pakistan) wanted to be left alone in the management of its polity and the economy in a confederation of Pakistan but vested interest and particularly the defense establishment of Pakistan couldn’t it. Mujib ur Rehman attended the conference called by Choudhary Muhammad Ali at Lahore in 1966 to condemn Ayub Khan for signing Tashkent declaration. In this meeting, he presented his six points for the first time but the agenda of the meeting was different, he was asked to focus the main agenda, Mujib gave the wrong interpretation to the point and claimed that his six points were not discussed. The leaders of Pakistan interested in giving the Bengalis their basic rights. He has left the meeting and saying that once again Bengal was being ignored and treated as an independent subject by the Western wing. Therefore he published his six points and demanded the government of Pakistan to accept them and to implement them as they were. Six points formula is here:

There would be a federal parliamentary system based on the direct adult franchise and representation of provinces would be on the basis of the population in the federal legislature.

The federal government will be restricted only to foreign affairs, defence and currency. And even regarding foreign affairs, the dealings of economic matters would rest with the provinces.

There would either be two different currencies for the two wings or a single one with separate Federal Reserve System for each wing.

The power of implementation and collection of taxes would die with provinces. The federal government will be given enough shares to fulfil its tasks of foreign affairs and defence.

These would be separate accounts of foreign exchange earnings for each wing.

 

East Pakistan would be given the authority to have a militia or paramilitary force solely under its provincial government. After the publication of six points, he travelled around Bengal to gain the support of the people in favour of his six-point formula. In April Mujib demanded from the government to conduct a nationwide referendum on his six-point program. He was arrested on 19 April 1966 in Jessore under the defence of Pakistan rules but was bailed out soon. Ayub Khan, who always wanted to handle the political issues with force, ordered again to arrest Mujib. On 7 may his trial began in Sylhet jail and nearly after 21 months he was charged with Agartala conspiracy. It was closed that Mujib along with 28 east Pakistanis, including military officials and civil servants, visited Agartala in the India state of Tripura and planned a conspiracy of the dismemberment of Pakistan. However, when protests start against Ayub Khan, he withdrew this case and all the accused including Mujib were released. On Mujib’s Arrival to his province, he was hailed as a hero of Bengali people. In 1970 Mujib was not satisfied with the performance of government and declared that West Pakistan treated them as a colony. In election 1970 he presented his six points agenda as the manifesto of the Awami League. During election campaign speeches of Mujib reflected more and more pro-Bengali and anti-Pakistan ideas.In general elections of 1970 Awami League had won the majority of seats 162 out of 165 in the national assembly. After the elections, the President was supposed to give a date for the first session of the National Assembly but Awami League and PPP failed to a bridged their differences On six points formula. Yahya twice requested Mujib to come to Islamabad for resolving their differences but Mujib refused. In order to end the political deadlock Yahya had to visit Mujib himself but it was all in vain. Mujib didn’t move even an inch from his rigid stance. Mujib with the help of India, launched MUKTI BAHINI, a militant wing to fight against Pakistan Army to achieve independence from Pakistan. When the situation becomes out of control, Yahya decided to launch military action and Mujib ur Rehman, who had announced a paralleled government in East Pakistan, was sent to jail in West Pakistan. The Bengalis observed the strike against the government and the government again responded to demonstrations with brutal force and violent suppression. The government strategy of trying to resolve a political issue with force was causing the great problem. Meanwhile, India intervened, the evil intrusion of the Indian Army under the command of L.G.Jagjit Singh Arora was warmly welcomed by Mukti Bahini and the followers of Mujib in East Bengal. During the conflict, India openly sided East Pakistan and provided them Financial, military and diplomatic support. After a brief resistance of 18 days, Pakistan Army surrendered 93,000 soldiers and officers were taken to India as Prisoners of war. Pakistan was divided into two parts on 16 Dec 1971. East Bengal declared its independence and Bangladesh emerged on the map of the world.

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