Causes And Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus

Zainab Sarfraz

Causes And Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a chronic or lifelong condition of the disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat.  It is caused by the inherited or acquired deficiency in the production of insulin. Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the beta cells which helps to control the amount of sugar in the blood.  Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations:

Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) in which Pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. This form develops most frequently in children and adolescents. When insulin-producing cells damaged by the attack of the body’s immune system, sugar cannot get into body cells as a source of energy. This type of diabetes is mostly occurring in people at the age of 30. 10 per cent of people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes (insulin independent diabetes) in which Pancreas makes insulin but body’s inability to respond properly to the action of insulin. (Insulin resistance). Such deficiency results in increasing concentrations of glucose in the blood which damage many of the blood systems. It is the more common and accounts for 90 per cent cases in worldwide. It occurs more frequently in adults. This type of diabetes is mostly occurring in people at the age of 40 but can occur even in childhood if any risk factor is present. It may sometime control with diet, weight, management and exercise.

Gestational diabetes occurs when there is a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. Hormone changes during pregnancy also affect the action of insulin which causes a high blood glucose level. Pregnant women, who are 35 years old, overweight, have the family history of diabetes, and have the history of the polycystic ovarian syndrome have the greater risk of developing gestational diabetes which later has the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Body is made up of millions of cell. To make energy, cells need food in the simple form. When you eat or drink, much of the food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. It provides the energy with your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessel or blood is used to transport the sugar from where it is taken form stomach and manufacture in the liver. Pancreas release insulin (helper) which permit sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters in the cell, then blood sugar level becomes low.

 

Without insulin, Sugar doesn’t get into the body cell by itself. This cause the rise of sugar in the blood called hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).After 15 years of diabetes, approximately 2% of people become blind, while about 10% develop severe visual handicap. Loss of vision due to cataract may also be more common in people with diabetes than in those without the disease.

Diabetes can show their symptom like increased thirst, urination and hunger etc. diabetes narrow blood vessels, damage and restricted the flow of blood. It may damage many organs by causing kidney disease, heart attack, eye blindness and decrease sensation in patients. It may increase foot ulcer, fungal infection.

 

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