BIOTECHNOLOGY AN INNOVATION TOWARDS BETTER WORLD
Ever since the discovery of the genetic code in the 1960s, rapid progress has been made in the understanding of biological processes. In particular, methods of genetic engineering are being applied in increasingly diverse fields and new tools continuously open up more approaches to analyses and modify life. Most recently, with the development of the CRISPR/Cas method in 2012, a decisive breakthrough was achieved. In combination with modern types of analysis and data evaluation, this method has opened up brand new possibilities in the engineering of biological processes. Many experts believe that this convergence of technologies for analysis, data processing and modification in the life sciences, and in biotechnology, in particular, unlock a potential for transformation comparable to digitization.
BIOTECHNOLOGY: The use of living microorganisms in the system or processes for the manufacturing of useful products”. It may be algae, yeast, fungi, bacteria, virus or cells of higher plants and animals or their subsystems or isolated components from living matter.
BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN INNOVATION TOWARDS BETTER WORLD
This is the biggest question mark for the many students which belongs to different biological sciences because biotechnology is the recent science compared to that biological sciences.
Some of the importance are listed below regarding that how biotechnology: an innovation towards the better world.
Disease diagnosis refers to the identification of the cause of the disease. Conventional methods include microscopy, the culture of specimen and testing for sensitiveness, several immunological assays etc. But these conventional mechanisms often have negative aspects like being tedious; taking longer time etc. In order to overcome this, various biotechnological approaches have been developed. These are:
Small nucleotide sequences used in the detection of complementary sequences in the nucleic acid sample is known as probes. These probes can be radioactively or non-radioactively labelled so that they can be used for detection purposes. The samples like blood fluids, tissues etc., can be analysed with probes for disease diagnosis.
Monoclonal antibodies are a preparation of antibodies so that it is highly specific to a single epitope of an antigen. It is employed in immunological assays like ELISA, immune PCR wherein monoclonal antibody specific for an antigen is attached with a marker and used for identification of specific antigen. This is also used in the preparation of autoantibodies. Autoantibodies are produced by an organism in instances of autoimmunity against its own organs. The antigenic specificities of such antibodies can be used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders.
DETECTION OF GENETIC DISORDERS:
Genetic diseases are inborn defects of a person. These are mostly caused due to a single recessive mutation. Fetal cells are retrieved and diagnosed for any possible genetic diseases. The sample for such diagnosis is obtained from biopsies of trophoblastic villi which is an external part of the human embryo.
AIM OF BIOTECHNOLOGY:
Rearrangement of DNA sequence using artificial methods
Study the qualities and characteristics which are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused.
Research the causes of a disease and discover the potential cure.
Maintain organisms used for the genetic engineering: animals, plants and microorganisms including cells and tissues from the higher organisms.
Biotechnology is the main cure for many inherited diseases through the use of genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is the integration of a number of scientific disciplines including microbiology, genetics, biochemistry and chemical engineering.
TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY:
Biotechnology is characterized by particularly long development and innovation cycles compared to other disciplines such as biochemistry and microbiology. Frequently it takes many decades until fundamental research findings result in specific applications such as new medicines or industrial processes. For this reason, stable framework conditions in research and the provision of continuous research funding are particularly important. Some of the challenges of biotechnology are listed below:
The word ‘Proteome’ is now firmly established in mainstream scientific vernacular and is the key technology in the post-genomic era. In simple word proteomic is defined as; “Proteomics is the systematic study of the many and diverse properties of proteins in a parallel manner with the aim of providing detailed descriptions of the structure-function and control of biological systems in health and disease”.
Advances in genome sequencing on the basis of the Human Genome Project and the development of new generations of high-throughput processes have led to significant cost and performance improvements in the area of analysis. With them, rates of improvement have been achieved that far exceed Moore’s law in microelectronics. Due to cheaper and continuously improving technologies, it is now feasible to capture the entirety of the genes and even the proteins of an organism (‘Omics technologies’). This allows for a better understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The use of these technologies results in the creation of very large volumes of data that subsequently need to be processed. For this reason, digital infrastructures are playing an ever bigger role in the area of biotechnology, and crucial importance is being attributed to bioinformatics.
Bioinformatics is a sub-field of the Biotechnology.
The goal of bioinformatics thus is to provide
Scientists with a means to explain:
Normal biological processes
Study of these processes which lead to diseases
Approaches to improving drug discovery.
Biotechnology has tremendous potential for decreasing the disease rate, provide the better health at low cost, improving food processing.
One of the major scientific revolutions of the twentieth century was the breaking of the genetic code and the development of tools that enable scientists to probe the molecules of life with incredible precision. Now, in the twenty-first century, these developments in biology are being married with the use of ever-increasing computer power to help us face the challenges that the new century brings.
In future biotechnology will be accredited for some revolutionary technology. Recent advances in bioenergy, bioremediation, synthetic biology, DNA computers, virtual cell, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and bio-nanotechnology have made biotechnology even more powerful.
The recent discovery of conduction of electricity by DNA and its behaviour as a superconductor has opened a new realm in modern science.
In future biotechnology will have the profound impact on the world economy. Biotechnology is a golden tool to solve some of the key global problems like the global epidemic, fatal diseases, global warming, rising petroleum fuel crisis and above all poverty.