BASICS OF PHILOSOPHY AND ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy literally means “love of Wisdom”. It is the study of general and fundamental problems related to existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language. The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into the questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind and value
Classical philosophical questions include
Is it possible to know anything and to prove it?
What is most real?
Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions as
Is there a best way to live?
Is it better to be just or unjust?
Can humans live with their will?
Historically philosophy covers any body of knowledge from the time of Ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle to the 19th century “Natural Philosophy”. It was used to comprehend astronomy, medicine, and physics but the thing that intrigue is that Newton’s (1687) mathematical principles of natural philosophy latter became classified as a book of Physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era disciplines including psychology, sociology, linguistics (related to language) separated from philosophy.
Basically, philosophy was a term related to thinking but as people started thinking, philosophy became much broader and diverse and converted into different scopes and fields. We can say that philosophy is a basic towards science and technology but since science became the too wide field, it was separated from philosophy and was given isolate rank as Science related to physics, chemistry, and biology as its majors but art, politics, ethics remained part of philosophy.
Many regions have their own philosophy to hold traditions and civilizations of those regions people. Here I will discuss Ancient Greek Philosophy which is considered the most populous philosophy
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY
Greek philosophy is also called Western philosophy. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the western world which included western Greece. Great thinkers of western philosophy are Thales and Pythagoras (who practiced “love of Wisdom” and also made Pythagorean theorem (here is the picture of Pythagoras)
Socrates was the very influential philosopher who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was the pursuer of wisdom (here is a picture of Socrates)
Western philosophy can be divided into 3 eras
Medieval (Christian European)
1- The Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose various pupils of Socrates such as Plato whose student was Aristotle (picture)
These schools covered topics included metaphysics (the relationship between mind and matter, between possibility and actuality), cosmology (the study of origin and evolution of the universe), nature of well-lived life, nature of reason etc. Roman Empire was also influenced by Greek Philosophy.
2- Medieval Philosophy is the period after the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity. Philosophers of this period included St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and Roger Bacon. This philosophy covers problems as existence and nature of God, nature of faith, reason, metaphysics, problems of evil were discussed in this period. Medieval philosophy included theology (the study of the nature of Divine).
3- Modern Philosophy was concerned with developing the secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the church.
Early modern philosophy in western world’s begin with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and Rane Descartes following with rising of natural science.19th-century philosophy is influenced by the wider movement called Enlightenment (age of reason) that dominated the worlds of ideas in Europe during the 18th century(century of philosophy). The ideas of Enlightenment centered on reason and came to advance ideas like liberty, progress, tolerance, constitutional government and separation of church and state.